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Author Granskog, M. url  isbn
  Title Investigations into the physical and chemical properties of Baltic Sea ice Type Book Whole
  Year 2004 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords sea ice; snow-ice; superimposed ice; meteoric ice; chemistry; nutrients; trace elements; Baltic Sea  
  Abstract Sea ice is a key component of polar and sub-polar seas, including the Baltic Sea. It not only affects climate, from global to local scales, but also strongly modifies the conditions in the marine environment through freezing and eventual melt in several ways. The role of snow in sea ice growth is presumed to be high in the Baltic Sea, although very little quantitative information is available on the contribution of precipitation to ice growth in the Baltic Sea. Even less is known about the chemistry of sea ice and its role as a moderator of (bio)geochemical cycling and budgets of elements in the Baltic Sea. The aim of this Thesis is to shed new light on these matters.The importance of snow and precipitation on the growth of Baltic Sea ice is vital. For the first time, the stable oxygen isotopic composition of ice, snow and water were used to quantify the amount of snow and precipitation incorporated into the sea ice cover. Results show that meteoric ice (precipitation transformed to ice) constitute up to 35% of the total sea ice mass, much higher than reported elsewhere. Furthermore, the formation of superimposed ice (refrozen snow melt or rain) seem to be important as well, presumably due to the mild ice climate conditions in the region.The atmospheric load is also important in the chemical budgets of several elements, in particular nitrogen and lead, in the sea ice cover. The sea ice cover acts as a buffer for accumulated substances until its inevitable melt. However, the accumulated nutrients are transported through the ice at times when the ice becomes permeable. This, in turn, makes the accumulated nutrients available in the lower ice layers as well as in under-ice water, potentially affecting algal growth. The chemical budgets and the seasonal cycling of elements with selective rejection/retention during freezing of seawater are potentially affected, especially in the shallow regions of the Bothnian Bay.  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher University of Helsinki Place of Publication Helsinki Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition (up)  
  ISSN ISBN 952-91-6613-3 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Academic dissertation in geophysics at the Faculty of Science of the University of Helsinki; Printed version includes 5 original papers; Online-ISBN: 952-10-1485-7 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ admin @ Granskog2004 Serial 13  
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