||Posaconazole is a triazole antifungal agent, administered as an oral suspension, with an extended spectrum of in vitro activity. Posaconazole 800 mg/day demonstrated clinically relevant activity against a range of fungi in patients with invasive fungal infections who were refractory to, or intolerant of, other antifungal therapy in an open-label, multicentre, phase III study (330 patients received posaconazole and 279 patients served as external controls). In aspergillosis, the global response success rate at the end-of-therapy visit (primary endpoint) was significantly higher in posaconazole recipients than in external controls (42% vs 26%). Posaconazole was also associated with overall success rates of 54% in zygomycosis, 46% in fusariosis, 43% in Pseudallescheria infection, 80% in phaeohyphomycosis and 100% in histoplasmosis. Success rates were 48% in refractory candidiasis, 69% in refractory coccidioidomycosis, 48% in refractory cryptococcal infection and 82% in refractory chromoblastomycosis or mycetoma. Posaconazole also demonstrated potential in febrile neutropenia in an open-label phase II study (success rate of 81% 7 days after the end of treatment). In a noncomparative, multicentre, phase III study in patients with advanced HIV infection who had azole-refractory oropharyngeal and/or oesophageal candidiasis, posaconazole 400 or 800 mg/day resulted in a clinical response in 132 of 176 patients (75%). Oral posaconazole suspension was generally well tolerated in patients with invasive fungal infections, including patients who received treatment for >or=1 year.