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Author (up) Clark, P.A.; Gaal, J.T.; Strebe, J.K.; Pasch, C.A.; Deming, D.A.; Kuo, J.S.; Robins, H.I. url  doi
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  Title The effects of tumor treating fields and temozolomide in MGMT expressing and non-expressing patient-derived glioblastoma cells Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Clinical Neuroscience : Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia Abbreviated Journal J Clin Neurosci  
  Volume 36 Issue Pages 120-124  
  Keywords Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/*pharmacology; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Proliferation/drug effects/radiation effects; Cell Survival/drug effects/radiation effects; Cells, Cultured; DNA Modification Methylases/genetics/*metabolism; DNA Repair Enzymes/genetics/*metabolism; Dacarbazine/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; *Electromagnetic Fields; Glioblastoma/genetics/*metabolism; Humans; Neoplastic Stem Cells/drug effects/radiation effects; Neurons/drug effects/radiation effects; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics/*metabolism; Cancer stem cells; Glioblastoma; MGMT methylation; Temozolomide; Tumor treating fields  
  Abstract A recent Phase 3 study of newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) demonstrated the addition of tumor treating fields (TTFields) to temozolomide (TMZ) after combined radiation/TMZ significantly increased survival and progression free survival. Preliminary data suggested benefit with both methylated and unmethylated O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyl-transferase (MGMT) promoter status. To date, however, there have been no studies to address the potential interactions of TTFields and TMZ. Thus, the effects of TTFields and TMZ were studied in vitro using patient-derived GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) including MGMT expressing (TMZ resistant: 12.1 and 22GSC) and non-MGMT expressing (TMZ sensitive: 33 and 114GSC) lines. Dose-response curves were constructed using cell proliferation and sphere-forming assays. Results demonstrated a 10-fold increase in TMZ resistance of MGMT-expressing (12.1GSCs: IC50=160muM; 22GSCs: IC50=44muM) compared to MGMT non-expressing (33GSCs: IC50=1.5muM; 114GSCs: IC50=5.2muM) lines. TTFields inhibited 12.1 GSC proliferation at all tested doses (50-500kHz) with an optimal frequency of 200kHz. At 200kHz, TTFields inhibited proliferation and tumor sphere formation of both MGMT GSC subtypes at comparable levels (12.1GSC: 74+/-2.9% and 38+/-3.2%, respectively; 22GSC: 61+/-11% and 38+/-2.6%, respectively; 33GSC: 56+/-9.5% and 60+/-7.1%, respectively; 114 GSC: 79+/-3.5% and 41+/-4.3%, respectively). In combination, TTFields (200kHz) and TMZ showed an additive anti-neoplastic effect with equal efficacy for TTFields in both cell types (i.e., +/- MGMT expression) with no effect on TMZ resistance. This is the first demonstration of the effects of TTFields on cancer stem cells. The expansion of such studies may have clinical implications.  
  Address University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, UWSMPH, United States; Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, UWSMPH, United States; William S Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI, United States; Department of Neurology, UWSMPH, United States; Department of Human Oncology, UWSMPH, United States. Electronic address: hirobins@wisc.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0967-5868 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27865821 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96622  
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