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Author Gouveia, N.; Junger, W.L. url  doi
  Title Effects of air pollution on infant and children respiratory mortality in four large Latin-American cities Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut  
  Volume 232 Issue Pages 385-391  
  Keywords Air pollution; Children mortality; Infant mortality; Respiratory diseases; Time series  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: Air pollution is an important public health concern especially for children who are particularly susceptible. Latin America has a large children population, is highly urbanized and levels of pollution are substantially high, making the potential health impact of air pollution quite large. We evaluated the effect of air pollution on children respiratory mortality in four large urban centers: Mexico City, Santiago, Chile, and Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. METHODS: Generalized Additive Models in Poisson regression was used to fit daily time-series of mortality due to respiratory diseases in infants and children, and levels of PM10 and O3. Single lag and constrained polynomial distributed lag models were explored. Analyses were carried out per cause for each age group and each city. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis was conducted in order to combine the city-specific results in a single summary estimate. RESULTS: These cities host nearly 43 million people and pollution levels were above the WHO guidelines. For PM10 the percentage increase in risk of death due to respiratory diseases in infants in a fixed effect model was 0.47% (0.09-0.85). For respiratory deaths in children 1-5 years old, the increase in risk was 0.58% (0.08-1.08) while a higher effect was observed for lower respiratory infections (LRI) in children 1-14 years old [1.38% (0.91-1.85)]. For O3, the only summarized estimate statistically significant was for LRI in infants. Analysis by season showed effects of O3 in the warm season for respiratory diseases in infants, while negative effects were observed for respiratory and LRI deaths in children. DISCUSSION: We provided comparable mortality impact estimates of air pollutants across these cities and age groups. This information is important because many public policies aimed at preventing the adverse effects of pollution on health consider children as the population group that deserves the highest protection.  
  Address Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  
  Corporate Author ESCALA investigators Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition (up)  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28966023 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97158  
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