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Author Granskog, M.A.; Kaartokallio, H.; Thomas, D.; Ehn, J.; Kuosa, H.; Sonninen, E.
Title Horizontal variations in biogeochemical characteristics of landfast sea ice in the Gulf of Finland (the Baltic Sea) Type Book Chapter
Year 2004 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 5-11
Keywords Fast Ice; Biogeochemical Properties; Salinity; Oxygen Isotope; Chlorophyll; Nutrients; Doc; Horizontal Patchiness; Spatial Variability; Patchiness; Baltic Sea; Oxygen Isotopes
Abstract In order to study the mesoscale variation in ice properties, horizontal variation of first-year landfast sea ice properties was investigated in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. Several scales of variation were considered; samples at spacing of 0.2-, 2- and 20-m were sampled at several locations at different stages of the ice season. Spacing between these locations varied from hundreds of meters to kilometers. The variables measured included salinity, stable oxygen isotopes (δ¹8O), chlorophyll-a, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Analyses of the data from the arrays did not show evidence of significant patchiness at scales <20-m. On scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers there was clear patchiness in several parameters (salinity, chl-a, snow depth and ice thickness). The results imply that the sampling effort in Baltic Sea ice studies should be concentrated at scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers.
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Publisher International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research Place of Publication Editor 17th IAHR international symposium on ice, S.P., Russia, 21-25 June 2004,
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Proceedings of the 17th IAHR international symposium on ice, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 21-25 June 2004 Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume 2 Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number refbase @ admin @ Granskog_etal2004 Serial 16
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Author Granskog, M.A.; Kaartokallio, H.; Thomas, D.N.; Kuosa, H.
Title Influence of freshwater inflow on the inorganic nutrient and dissolved organic matter within coastal sea ice and underlying waters in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Abbreviated Journal Estuar Coast Shelf Sci
Volume 65 Issue 1-2 Pages 109-122
Keywords coastal oceanography; sea ice; river plumes; estuarine chemistry; nutrients (mineral); dissolved organic matter; Baltic Sea
Abstract A study was conducted to measure the biogeochemical characteristics of freshwater plumes underlying Baltic Sea land-fast ice, and the overlying sea ice. A 40-km long transect was conducted in the northern Baltic Sea in March 2003, following a freshwater plume from its source into the fully mixed open-sea area. The spreading of river outflow below the ice resulted in a well-stratified low-salinity surface layer further out than normally occurs in the open-water period. The freshwaters were high in dissolved organic matter (DOC, DON and CDOM), and inorganic nutrients (ammonium, nitrate and silicate), although the levels of phosphate were low. In general these parameters changed concurrently with salinity in such a way that mixing was conservative. The characteristics of the ice varied from the freshwater source to the open water, with increasing salinity and brine volumes (porosity) occurring in the more open-sea stations. Coinciding with the changes in ice properties there was an increase in sea-ice algal growth in the more marine stations along the transect. Biological activity in the ice was largely confined to bottom ice assemblages. In contrast to the conditions in the underlying water, no relationship between salinity, inorganic nutrients and organic matter was observed in the ice. In particular ammonium, phosphate, DOC and DON were present in excess of those levels predicted from the dilution curves, indicating the presence of considerable DOM production by ice assemblages, inorganic nutrient uptake and remineralization within the ice.
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Publisher Academic Press Place of Publication San Diego Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0272-7714 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Sampling: Nine stations along a 40km salinity gradient from inner Pojo Bay through the Archipelago to the edge of the open sea Approved no
Call Number refbase @ admin @ Granskog_etal2005_2 Serial 17
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Author Granskog, M.A.; Virkkunen, K.; Thomas, D.N.; Ehn, J.; Kola, H.; Martma, T.
Title Chemical properties of brackish water ice in the Bothnian Bay, the Baltic Sea Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Journal of Glaciology Abbreviated Journal J Glaciol
Volume 50 Issue 169 Pages 292-302
Keywords Dependent Solute Redistribution; Dissolved Organic Matter; Phase Boundary; Sulfate; Binding; Summer; Oxygen; Core; Gulf
Abstract The behavior of majors, δ¹8O, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trace elements was studied during the initial freezing of low-saline water (3 practical salinity units) in a freezing experiment. Samples were also collected from first-year sea ice from pack ice in the Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea. During initial ice formation, the major-ion ratios in sea ice indicated variable behavior, with some ions showing relative enrichment (sulfate, calcium and magnesium), conservative behavior (sodium) or relative depletion (potassium) compared to sea water at the same salinity DOC, iron and aluminum showed enrichment in the ice, while zinc was depleted to salinity. Lead was detected in surface snow-ice layers only, implying atmospheric accumulation. First-year sea ice, with a variable growth and thermal history, showed behavior for major ions similar to that observed in new ice. However, for trace elements the picture was much more complicated, most likely due to active secondary processes such as atmospheric supply and biological activity. Ice growth has a potential impact on the chemical budgets and cycling of some elements, especially those which are selectively rejected/retained during sea-ice formation, particularly in the shallow parts of the Bothnian Bay covered with a land-fast ice cover.
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Publisher International Glaciological Society Place of Publication Cambridge Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-1430 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Isi:000227720900014 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ admin @ Granskog_etal2004_2 Serial 18
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Author Kaartokallio, H.; Kuosa, H.; Thomas, D.N.; Granskog, M.A.; Kivi, K.
Title Biomass, composition and activity of organism assemblages along a salinity gradient in sea ice subjected to river discharge in the Baltic Sea Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Polar Biology Abbreviated Journal Polar Biol
Volume 30 Issue 2 Pages 183-197
Keywords
Abstract A study was undertaken to examine the activity and composition of the seasonal Baltic Sea land-fast sea-ice biota along a salinity gradient in March 2003 in a coastal location in the SW coast of Finland. Using a multi-variable data set, the less well-known algal and protozoan communities, and algal and bacterial production in relation to the physical and chemical environment were investigated. Also, the first coincident measurements of bacterial production and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in a sea-ice system are reported. Communities in sea ice were clearly autotrophy-dominated with algal biomass representing 79% of the total biomass. Protozoa and rotifers made up 18% of biomass in the ice and bacteria only 3%. Highest biomasses were found in mid-transect bottom ice. Water column assemblages were clearly more heterotrophic: 39% algae, 12% bacteria and 49% for rotifers and protozoa. Few significant correlations existed between DOM and bacterial variables, reflecting the complex origin of ice DOM. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (DOC, DON and DOP) were also uncoupled. A functional microbial loop is likely to be present in the studied ice. Existence of an under-ice freshwater plume affects the ecosystem functioning: Under-ice water communities are influenced directly by river-water mixing, whereas the ice system seems to be more independent&#150;the interaction mainly taking place through the formation of active bottom communities.
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Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Heidelberg Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0722-4060 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Sampling: Nine stations along a 40km salinity gradient from inner Pojo Bay through the Archipelago to the edge of the open sea Approved no
Call Number refbase @ admin @ Kaartokallio_etal2006 Serial 19
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Author Leppäranta, M.; Palosuo, E.; Grönvall, H.; Kalliosaari, S.; Seinä, A.; Peltola, J. (eds)
Title Phases of the ice season in the Baltic Sea (North of 57°N) Type Book Whole
Year 1988 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Ice; Ice Extent / Cover; Baltic Sea
Abstract
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Publisher Finnish Institute of Marine Research Place of Publication Helsinki Editor Leppäranta, M.; Palosuo, E.; Grönvall, H.; Kalliosaari, S.; Seinä, A.; Peltola, J.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Finnish Marine Research Abbreviated Series Title Finnish Mar Res
Series Volume 254 Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 0357-1076 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number refbase @ admin @ Leppaeranta_etal1988 Serial 20
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