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Author (up)
Title Relations between professional medical associations and the health-care industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Acta Cardiologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Cardiol
Volume 67 Issue 3 Pages 379-390
Keywords Bias (Epidemiology); Cardiology/economics/*education/ethics; Education, Medical, Continuing/economics/*ethics/organization & administration; Europe; Health Care Sector/economics/*ethics; Internet; Interprofessional Relations/*ethics; Organizational Policy; Periodicals as Topic; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Research Support as Topic/ethics; Societies, Medical/economics/*ethics
Abstract Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.
Address
Corporate Author ESC Board Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-5385 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:22870754 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 52793
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Author (up)
Title [Notion of A.L. Chizhevsky of rhythm and present-day foundations of space biorhythmology] Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine Abbreviated Journal Aviakosm Ekolog Med
Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 58-65
Keywords *Aerospace Medicine; Astronauts; Humans; *Periodicity; Russia; *Space Flight
Abstract Space biorhythmology is a space medicine discipline that came into being at the very beginning of Russian piloted cosmonautics for the purposes of scientific substantiation of the principles of managing human work and rest cycle during space flight. The article states the link between space biorhythmology and the Chizhevsky fundamental ideas of periodicity as a feature of the universe key to stability of natural phenomena in time and space. The authors discuss main results of experimental and theoretical researches in the field of space biorhythmology in the ground laboratory and spaceflight conditions.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Russian Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0233-528X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23116047 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ admin @ Serial 15471
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Author (up)
Title [Methods of bio-engineering destruction of root residues in application to a space vitamin greenhouse with ionite artificial soil] Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine Abbreviated Journal Aviakosm Ekolog Med
Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 48-52
Keywords Bioengineering/*methods; Biomass; Brassica/growth & development; Clostridium thermocellum/growth & development; Fermentation; Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry; Plant Roots/growth & development; Soil/*chemistry; *Space Flight; Temperature
Abstract Regeneration of ionite artificial soil (AS) in root modules (RM) of conveyor-type space greenhouses should be proceeded by removal of root residues without disruption of the AS capillary-porous structure. The proposed method consists of two stages of root residues destruction. On the first stage, AS treatment by 0.7% an alkali water solution with added 0.7% hydrogen peroxide over 3.5 hours in a thermal-insulation container at 95 +/- 4 degrees C reduces root residue mass up to 60%. Specific energy cost of SHF pulses to maintain the required temperature is 1 W x hr for cleaning 1 g and AS sterilization from saprotrophs. On the second stage, AS undergoes saturation with a liquid anaerobic medium for 7-day cultivation of thermophilic Clostridium thermocellum at 55 degrees C. Seven days of bio-engineering regeneration enables removal of 90% root biomass. Residual products of fermentation have a stimulating effect on seed germination and subsequent plant growth. Bio-engineering testing of regenerated AS with cultivation of leaf cabbage Brassica chinensis L. attested to suitability of the technology for extension of AS useful life.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Russian Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0233-528X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23116044 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ admin @ Serial 15472
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Author (up)
Title [Research activities of cosmonauts in long-duration orbital missions] Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine Abbreviated Journal Aviakosm Ekolog Med
Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 22-26
Keywords *Aerospace Medicine; Astronauts/education/*organization & administration/standards; Humans; Research/instrumentation; *Research Design; *Space Flight; Time Factors
Abstract The paper presents the view of space medicine and human factor experts on the problems of cosmonaut's research activities. Readiness of ISS crewmembers for conducting experiments and research equipment handling depends on the pre-flight training quality and course of adaptation to the flight conditions, the latter of particular criticality for participation in human use tests as an object.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Russian Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0233-528X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23116038 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ admin @ Serial 15473
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Author (up)
Title [Shifts in the mice blood-forming system and energy exchange of erythrocytes due to chronic exposure to chemical agents (acetone, ethanol, acetaldehyde) and radiation in concentrations and doses modeling the conditions in extended orbital mission] Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina = Aerospace and Environmental Medicine Abbreviated Journal Aviakosm Ekolog Med
Volume 46 Issue 2 Pages 21-28
Keywords Acetaldehyde/administration & dosage/*toxicity; Acetone/administration & dosage/*toxicity; Air Pollutants/toxicity; Animals; Environmental Monitoring/methods; Erythrocytes/*drug effects/radiation effects; Ethanol/administration & dosage/*toxicity; Gamma Rays/*adverse effects; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Inbred CBA; Oxidation-Reduction; Space Flight; Time Factors
Abstract The paper presents the results of an investigation with mice subjected to isolated and successive exposure to a blend of chemical agents (acetone, ethanol, acetaldehyde) at MPC levels defined for piloted space vehicles followed by fractionated gamma-irradiation by daily 1 cGy (30 cGy total). The selected chemicals are the primary contributors to total air contamination and present in the prioritized list of compounds to be monitored to ensure air quality on piloted space vehicles. Radiation levels were determined with allowance for mice radiosensitivity to simulate the actual absorbed dose accumulated by crewmembers of orbital mission of up to a year in duration (10 cGy). Based on the findings in the hematopoietic system and erythrocyte biochemistry, energy exchange and redox parameters, pre-irradiation exposure to chemical agents within the MPC limits accentuated radiosensitivity gravely and, therefore, made mouse organism less tolerant to radiation. It was shown that adaptation of the hematopoietic system calls forth activation and significant straining of regulatory mechanisms equally in opposing to a single factor or combination of chemical and radiation exposure. The marked tension of these mechanisms persisted till day 30 of recovery.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Russian Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0233-528X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:22953536 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ admin @ Serial 15517
Permanent link to this record