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Author Cole, D.C.; Giordano, C.R.; Vasilopoulos, T.; Fahy, B.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Resident Physicians Improve Nontechnical Skills When on Operating Room Management and Leadership Rotation Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Anesthesia and Analgesia Abbreviated Journal Anesth Analg  
  Volume 124 Issue 1 Pages 300-307  
  Keywords  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: Anesthesiology residency primarily emphasizes the development of medical knowledge and technical skills. Yet, nontechnical skills (NTS) are also vital to successful clinical practice. Elements of NTS are communication, teamwork, situational awareness, and decision making. METHODS: The first 10 consecutive senior residents who chose to participate in this 2-week elective rotation of operating room (OR) management and leadership training were enrolled in this study, which spanned from March 2013 to March 2015. Each resident served as the anesthesiology officer of the day (AOD) and was tasked with coordinating OR assignments, managing care for 2 to 4 ORs, and being on call for the trauma OR; all residents were supervised by an attending AOD. Leadership and NTS techniques were taught via a standardized curriculum consisting of leadership and team training articles, crisis management text, and daily debriefings. Resident self-ratings and attending AOD and charge nurse raters used the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) scoring system, which involved task management, situational awareness, teamwork, and decision making. For each of the 10 residents in their third year of clinical anesthesiology training (CA-3) who participated in this elective rotation, there were 14 items that required feedback from resident self-assessment and OR raters, including the daily attending AOD and charge nurse. Results for each of the items on the questionnaire were compared between the beginning and the end of the rotation with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched samples. Comparisons were run separately for attending AOD and charge nurse assessments and resident self-assessments. Scaled rankings were analyzed for the Kendall coefficient of concordance (omega) for rater agreement with associated chi and P value. RESULTS: Common themes identified by the residents during debriefings were recurrence of challenging situations and the skills residents needed to instruct and manage clinical teams. For attending AOD and charge nurse assessments, resident performance of NTS improved from the beginning to the end of the rotation on 12 of the 14 NTS items (P < .05), whereas resident self-assessment improved on 3 NTS items (P < .05). Interrater reliability (across the charge nurse, resident, and AOD raters) ranged from omega = .36 to .61 at the beginning of the rotation and omega = .27 to .70 at the end of the rotation. CONCLUSIONS: This rotation allowed for teaching and resident assessment to occur in a way that facilitated resident education in several of the skills required to meet specific milestones. Resident physicians are able to foster NTS and build a framework for clinical leadership when completing a 2-week senior elective as an OR manager.  
  Address From the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, Fla  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-2999 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27918336 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 95061  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sacks, E.; Freeman, P.A.; Sakyi, K.; Jennings, M.C.; Rassekh, B.M.; Gupta, S.; Perry, H.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 3. neonatal health findings Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Global Health Abbreviated Journal J Glob Health  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 010903  
  Keywords  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: As the number of deaths among children younger than 5 years of age continues to decline globally through programs to address the health of older infants, neonatal mortality is becoming an increasingly large proportion of under-5 deaths. Lack of access to safe delivery care, emergency obstetric care and postnatal care continue to be challenges for reducing neonatal mortality. This article reviews the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) and common components of programs aiming to improve health during the first 28 days of life. METHODS: A database comprising evidence of the effectiveness of projects, programs and field research studies (referred to collectively as projects) in improving maternal, neonatal and child health through CBPHC has been assembled and described elsewhere in this series. From this larger database (N = 548), a subset was created from assessments specifically relating to newborn health (N = 93). Assessments were excluded if the primary project beneficiaries were more than 28 days of age, or if the assessment did not identify one of the following outcomes related to neonatal health: changes in knowledge about newborn illness, care seeking for newborn illness, utilization of postnatal care, nutritional status of neonates, neonatal morbidity, or neonatal mortality. Descriptive analyses were conducted based on study type and outcome variables. An equity assessment was also conducted on the articles included in the neonatal subset. RESULTS: There is strong evidence that CBPHC can be effective in improving neonatal health, and we present information about the common characteristics shared by effective programs. For projects that reported on health outcomes, twice as many reported an improvement in neonatal health as did those that reported no effect; only one study demonstrated a negative effect. Of those with the strongest experimental study design, almost three-quarters reported beneficial neonatal health outcomes. Many of the neonatal projects assessed in our database utilized community health workers (CHWs), home visits, and participatory women's groups. Several of the interventions used in these projects focused on health education (recognition of danger signs), and promotion of and support for exclusive breastfeeding (sometimes, but not always, including early breastfeeding). Almost all of the assessments that included a measurable equity component showed that CBPHC produced neonatal health benefits that favored the poorest segment of the project population. However, the studies were quite biased in geographic scope, with more than half conducted in South Asia, and many were pilot studies, rather than projects at scale. CONCLUSIONS: CBPHC can be effectively employed to improve neonatal health in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. CBPHC is especially important for education and support for pregnant and postpartum mothers and for establishing community-facility linkages to facilitate referrals for obstetrical emergencies; however, the latter will only produce better health outcomes if facilities offer timely, high-quality care. Further research on this topic is needed in Africa and Latin America, as well as in urban and peri-urban areas. Additionally, more assessments are needed of integrated packages of neonatal interventions and of programs at scale.  
  Address Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2047-2978 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28685041 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97042  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sacks, E.; Freeman, P.A.; Sakyi, K.; Jennings, M.C.; Rassekh, B.M.; Gupta, S.; Perry, H.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 3. neonatal health findings Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Global Health Abbreviated Journal J Glob Health  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 010903  
  Keywords  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: As the number of deaths among children younger than 5 years of age continues to decline globally through programs to address the health of older infants, neonatal mortality is becoming an increasingly large proportion of under-5 deaths. Lack of access to safe delivery care, emergency obstetric care and postnatal care continue to be challenges for reducing neonatal mortality. This article reviews the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) and common components of programs aiming to improve health during the first 28 days of life. METHODS: A database comprising evidence of the effectiveness of projects, programs and field research studies (referred to collectively as projects) in improving maternal, neonatal and child health through CBPHC has been assembled and described elsewhere in this series. From this larger database (N = 548), a subset was created from assessments specifically relating to newborn health (N = 93). Assessments were excluded if the primary project beneficiaries were more than 28 days of age, or if the assessment did not identify one of the following outcomes related to neonatal health: changes in knowledge about newborn illness, care seeking for newborn illness, utilization of postnatal care, nutritional status of neonates, neonatal morbidity, or neonatal mortality. Descriptive analyses were conducted based on study type and outcome variables. An equity assessment was also conducted on the articles included in the neonatal subset. RESULTS: There is strong evidence that CBPHC can be effective in improving neonatal health, and we present information about the common characteristics shared by effective programs. For projects that reported on health outcomes, twice as many reported an improvement in neonatal health as did those that reported no effect; only one study demonstrated a negative effect. Of those with the strongest experimental study design, almost three-quarters reported beneficial neonatal health outcomes. Many of the neonatal projects assessed in our database utilized community health workers (CHWs), home visits, and participatory women's groups. Several of the interventions used in these projects focused on health education (recognition of danger signs), and promotion of and support for exclusive breastfeeding (sometimes, but not always, including early breastfeeding). Almost all of the assessments that included a measurable equity component showed that CBPHC produced neonatal health benefits that favored the poorest segment of the project population. However, the studies were quite biased in geographic scope, with more than half conducted in South Asia, and many were pilot studies, rather than projects at scale. CONCLUSIONS: CBPHC can be effectively employed to improve neonatal health in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. CBPHC is especially important for education and support for pregnant and postpartum mothers and for establishing community-facility linkages to facilitate referrals for obstetrical emergencies; however, the latter will only produce better health outcomes if facilities offer timely, high-quality care. Further research on this topic is needed in Africa and Latin America, as well as in urban and peri-urban areas. Additionally, more assessments are needed of integrated packages of neonatal interventions and of programs at scale.  
  Address Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2047-2978 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28685041 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97082  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sacks, E.; Freeman, P.A.; Sakyi, K.; Jennings, M.C.; Rassekh, B.M.; Gupta, S.; Perry, H.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 3. neonatal health findings Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Global Health Abbreviated Journal J Glob Health  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 010903  
  Keywords  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: As the number of deaths among children younger than 5 years of age continues to decline globally through programs to address the health of older infants, neonatal mortality is becoming an increasingly large proportion of under-5 deaths. Lack of access to safe delivery care, emergency obstetric care and postnatal care continue to be challenges for reducing neonatal mortality. This article reviews the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) and common components of programs aiming to improve health during the first 28 days of life. METHODS: A database comprising evidence of the effectiveness of projects, programs and field research studies (referred to collectively as projects) in improving maternal, neonatal and child health through CBPHC has been assembled and described elsewhere in this series. From this larger database (N = 548), a subset was created from assessments specifically relating to newborn health (N = 93). Assessments were excluded if the primary project beneficiaries were more than 28 days of age, or if the assessment did not identify one of the following outcomes related to neonatal health: changes in knowledge about newborn illness, care seeking for newborn illness, utilization of postnatal care, nutritional status of neonates, neonatal morbidity, or neonatal mortality. Descriptive analyses were conducted based on study type and outcome variables. An equity assessment was also conducted on the articles included in the neonatal subset. RESULTS: There is strong evidence that CBPHC can be effective in improving neonatal health, and we present information about the common characteristics shared by effective programs. For projects that reported on health outcomes, twice as many reported an improvement in neonatal health as did those that reported no effect; only one study demonstrated a negative effect. Of those with the strongest experimental study design, almost three-quarters reported beneficial neonatal health outcomes. Many of the neonatal projects assessed in our database utilized community health workers (CHWs), home visits, and participatory women's groups. Several of the interventions used in these projects focused on health education (recognition of danger signs), and promotion of and support for exclusive breastfeeding (sometimes, but not always, including early breastfeeding). Almost all of the assessments that included a measurable equity component showed that CBPHC produced neonatal health benefits that favored the poorest segment of the project population. However, the studies were quite biased in geographic scope, with more than half conducted in South Asia, and many were pilot studies, rather than projects at scale. CONCLUSIONS: CBPHC can be effectively employed to improve neonatal health in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. CBPHC is especially important for education and support for pregnant and postpartum mothers and for establishing community-facility linkages to facilitate referrals for obstetrical emergencies; however, the latter will only produce better health outcomes if facilities offer timely, high-quality care. Further research on this topic is needed in Africa and Latin America, as well as in urban and peri-urban areas. Additionally, more assessments are needed of integrated packages of neonatal interventions and of programs at scale.  
  Address Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2047-2978 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28685041 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97122  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sacks, E.; Freeman, P.A.; Sakyi, K.; Jennings, M.C.; Rassekh, B.M.; Gupta, S.; Perry, H.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 3. neonatal health findings Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Global Health Abbreviated Journal J Glob Health  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 010903  
  Keywords  
  Abstract (up) BACKGROUND: As the number of deaths among children younger than 5 years of age continues to decline globally through programs to address the health of older infants, neonatal mortality is becoming an increasingly large proportion of under-5 deaths. Lack of access to safe delivery care, emergency obstetric care and postnatal care continue to be challenges for reducing neonatal mortality. This article reviews the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) and common components of programs aiming to improve health during the first 28 days of life. METHODS: A database comprising evidence of the effectiveness of projects, programs and field research studies (referred to collectively as projects) in improving maternal, neonatal and child health through CBPHC has been assembled and described elsewhere in this series. From this larger database (N = 548), a subset was created from assessments specifically relating to newborn health (N = 93). Assessments were excluded if the primary project beneficiaries were more than 28 days of age, or if the assessment did not identify one of the following outcomes related to neonatal health: changes in knowledge about newborn illness, care seeking for newborn illness, utilization of postnatal care, nutritional status of neonates, neonatal morbidity, or neonatal mortality. Descriptive analyses were conducted based on study type and outcome variables. An equity assessment was also conducted on the articles included in the neonatal subset. RESULTS: There is strong evidence that CBPHC can be effective in improving neonatal health, and we present information about the common characteristics shared by effective programs. For projects that reported on health outcomes, twice as many reported an improvement in neonatal health as did those that reported no effect; only one study demonstrated a negative effect. Of those with the strongest experimental study design, almost three-quarters reported beneficial neonatal health outcomes. Many of the neonatal projects assessed in our database utilized community health workers (CHWs), home visits, and participatory women's groups. Several of the interventions used in these projects focused on health education (recognition of danger signs), and promotion of and support for exclusive breastfeeding (sometimes, but not always, including early breastfeeding). Almost all of the assessments that included a measurable equity component showed that CBPHC produced neonatal health benefits that favored the poorest segment of the project population. However, the studies were quite biased in geographic scope, with more than half conducted in South Asia, and many were pilot studies, rather than projects at scale. CONCLUSIONS: CBPHC can be effectively employed to improve neonatal health in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. CBPHC is especially important for education and support for pregnant and postpartum mothers and for establishing community-facility linkages to facilitate referrals for obstetrical emergencies; however, the latter will only produce better health outcomes if facilities offer timely, high-quality care. Further research on this topic is needed in Africa and Latin America, as well as in urban and peri-urban areas. Additionally, more assessments are needed of integrated packages of neonatal interventions and of programs at scale.  
  Address Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2047-2978 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28685041 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97330  
Permanent link to this record
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