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Author Hira, V.V.V.; Verbovsek, U.; Breznik, B.; Srdic, M.; Novinec, M.; Kakar, H.; Wormer, J.; der Swaan, B.V.; Lenarcic, B.; Juliano, L.; Mehta, S.; Van Noorden, C.J.F.; Lah, T.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cathepsin K cleavage of SDF-1alpha inhibits its chemotactic activity towards glioblastoma stem-like cells Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Abbreviated Journal Biochim Biophys Acta  
  Volume 1864 Issue 3 Pages 594-603  
  Keywords Amino Acid Sequence; Cathepsin K/genetics/*metabolism; Cell Line, Tumor; Chemokine CXCL12/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism; Chemotaxis; Gene Expression; Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology; Humans; Neoplastic Stem Cells/*metabolism/pathology; Neuroglia/*metabolism/pathology; Protein Binding; Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical; Protein Conformation, beta-Strand; Proteolysis; Receptors, CXCR/genetics/metabolism; Receptors, CXCR4/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism; Stem Cell Niche/genetics; *Cathepsin K; *Glioma stem-like cells; *Niche; *Stromal-derived factor-1alpha  
  Abstract (up) Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with poor patient survival that is at least partly caused by malignant and therapy-resistant glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) that are protected in GSLC niches. Previously, we have shown that the chemo-attractant stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), its C-X-C receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and the cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK) are localized in GSLC niches in glioblastoma. Here, we investigated whether SDF-1alpha is a niche factor that through its interactions with CXCR4 and/or its second receptor CXCR7 on GSLCs facilitates their homing to niches. Furthermore, we aimed to prove that SDF-1alpha cleavage by CatK inactivates SDF-1alpha and inhibits the invasion of GSLCs. We performed mass spectrometric analysis of cleavage products of SDF-1alpha after proteolysis by CatK. We demonstrated that CatK cleaves SDF-1alpha at 3 sites in the N-terminus, which is the region of SDF-1alpha that binds to its receptors. Confocal imaging of human GBM tissue sections confirmed co-localization of SDF-1alpha and CatK in GSLC niches. In accordance, 2D and 3D invasion experiments using CXCR4/CXCR7-expressing GSLCs and GBM cells showed that SDF-1alpha had chemotactic activity whereas CatK cleavage products of SDF-1alpha did not. Besides, CXCR4 inhibitor plerixafor inhibited invasion of CXCR4/CXCR7-expressing GSLCs. In conclusion, CatK can cleave and inactivate SDF-1alpha. This implies that CatK activity facilitates migration of GSLCs out of niches. We propose that activation of CatK may be a promising strategy to prevent homing of GSLCs in niches and thus render these cells sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation.  
  Address Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 113, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3002 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28040478 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96615  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Heffernan, J.M.; McNamara, J.B.; Borwege, S.; Vernon, B.L.; Sanai, N.; Mehta, S.; Sirianni, R.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title PNIPAAm-co-Jeffamine(R) (PNJ) scaffolds as in vitro models for niche enrichment of glioblastoma stem-like cells Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Biomaterials Abbreviated Journal Biomaterials  
  Volume 143 Issue Pages 149-158  
  Keywords Brain tumor initiating cells; Cancer stem cells; Radioresistance; Temperature responsive polymer scaffolds; Tissue engineering  
  Abstract (up) Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor, and the 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. GBM malignancy is driven in part by a population of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) that exhibit indefinite self-renewal capacity, multipotent differentiation, expression of neural stem cell markers, and resistance to conventional treatments. GSCs are enriched in specialized niche microenvironments that regulate stem phenotypes and support GSC radioresistance. Therefore, identifying GSC-niche interactions that regulate stem phenotypes may present a unique target for disrupting the maintenance and persistence of this treatment resistant population. In this work, we engineered 3D scaffolds from temperature responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Jeffamine M-1000(R) acrylamide), or PNJ copolymers, as a platform for enriching stem-specific phenotypes in two molecularly distinct human patient-derived GSC cell lines. Notably, we observed that, compared to conventional neurosphere cultures, PNJ cultured GSCs maintained multipotency and exhibited enhanced self-renewal capacity. Concurrent increases in expression of proteins known to regulate self-renewal, invasion, and stem maintenance in GSCs (NESTIN, EGFR, CD44) suggest that PNJ scaffolds effectively enrich the GSC population. We further observed that PNJ cultured GSCs exhibited increased resistance to radiation treatment compared to GSCs cultured in standard neurosphere conditions. GSC radioresistance is supported in vivo by niche microenvironments, and this remains a significant barrier to effectively treating these highly tumorigenic cells. Taken in sum, these data indicate that the microenvironment created by synthetic PNJ scaffolds models niche enrichment of GSCs in patient-derived GBM cell lines, and presents tissue engineering opportunities for studying clinically important behaviors such as radioresistance in vitro.  
  Address Barrow Brain Tumor Research Center, Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 W Thomas Ave, Phoenix, AZ, 85013, USA; School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, PO Box 879709, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA. Electronic address: rachael.sirianni@dignityhealth.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0142-9612 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28802102 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96570  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Li, M.; Xiao, A.; Floyd, D.; Olmez, I.; Lee, J.; Godlewski, J.; Bronisz, A.; Bhat, K.P.L.; Sulman, E.P.; Nakano, I.; Purow, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title CDK4/6 inhibition is more active against the glioblastoma proneural subtype Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Oncotarget Abbreviated Journal Oncotarget  
  Volume 8 Issue 33 Pages 55319-55331  
  Keywords Cdk4/6; glioblastoma; mesenchymal; palbociclib; proneural  
  Abstract (up) Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor. Gene expression profiling has classified GBM into distinct subtypes, including proneural, mesenchymal, and classical, and identifying therapeutic vulnerabilities of these subtypes is an extremely high priority. We leveraged The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, in particular for microRNA expression, to seek druggable core pathways in GBM. The E2F1-regulated miR-17 92 cluster and its analogs are shown to be highly expressed in proneural GBM and in GSC lines, suggesting the E2F cell cycle pathway might be a key driver in proneural GBM. Consistently, CDK4/6 inhibition with palbociclib preferentially inhibited cell proliferation in vitro in a majority of proneural GSCs versus those of other subtypes. Palbociclib treatment significantly prolonged survival of mice with established intracranial xenografts of a proneural GSC line. We show that most of these sensitive PN GSCs expressed higher levels of CDK6 and had intact Rb1, while two GSC lines with CDK4 overexpression and null Rb1 were highly resistant to palbociclib. Importantly, palbociclib treatment of proneural GSCs upregulated mesenchymal-associated markers and downregulated proneural-associated markers, suggesting that CDK4/6 inhibition induced proneural-mesenchymal transition and underscoring the enhanced role of the E2F cell cycle pathway in the proneural subtype. Lastly, the combination of palbociclib and N,N-diethylaminobenzaldehyde, an inhibitor of the mesenchymal driver ALDH1A3, showed strong synergistic inhibitory effects against proneural GSC proliferation. Taken together, our results reveal that proneural GBM has increased vulnerability to CDK4/6 inhibition, and the proneural subtype undergoes dynamic reprogramming upon palbociclib treatment-suggesting the need for a combination therapeutic strategy.  
  Address Neuro-Oncology Division, Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1949-2553 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28903422 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96569  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Momeny, M.; Moghaddaskho, F.; Gortany, N.K.; Yousefi, H.; Sabourinejad, Z.; Zarrinrad, G.; Mirshahvaladi, S.; Eyvani, H.; Barghi, F.; Ahmadinia, L.; Ghazi-Khansari, M.; Dehpour, A.R.; Amanpour, S.; Tavangar, S.M.; Dardaei, L.; Emami, A.H.; Alimoghaddam, K.; Ghavamzadeh, A.; Ghaffari, S.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors by tivozanib has potential anti-tumour effects on human glioblastoma cells Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 44075  
  Keywords  
  Abstract (up) Glioblastoma (GBM) remains one of the most fatal human malignancies due to its high angiogenic and infiltrative capacities. Even with optimal therapy including surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide, it is essentially incurable. GBM is among the most neovascularised neoplasms and its malignant progression associates with striking neovascularisation, evidenced by vasoproliferation and endothelial cell hyperplasia. Targeting the pro-angiogenic pathways is therefore a promising anti-glioma strategy. Here we show that tivozanib, a pan-inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, inhibited proliferation of GBM cells through a G2/M cell cycle arrest via inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) signalling pathway and down-modulation of Aurora kinases A and B, cyclin B1 and CDC25C. Moreover, tivozanib decreased adhesive potential of these cells through reduction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Tivozanib diminished GBM cell invasion through impairing the proteolytic cascade of cathepsin B/urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)/matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Combination of tivozanib with EGFR small molecule inhibitor gefitinib synergistically increased sensitivity to gefitinib. Altogether, these findings suggest that VEGFR blockade by tivozanib has potential anti-glioma effects in vitro. Further in vivo studies are warranted to explore the anti-tumour activity of tivozanib in combinatorial approaches in GBM.  
  Address Haematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Centre, Shariati Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28287096 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96601  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Yan, H.; Romero-Lopez, M.; Benitez, L.I.; Di, K.; Frieboes, H.B.; Hughes, C.C.W.; Bota, D.A.; Lowengrub, J.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title 3D Mathematical Modeling of Glioblastoma Suggests That Transdifferentiated Vascular Endothelial Cells Mediate Resistance to Current Standard-of-Care Therapy Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Cancer Research Abbreviated Journal Cancer Res  
  Volume 77 Issue 15 Pages 4171-4184  
  Keywords Brain Neoplasms/*pathology; Cell Transdifferentiation/physiology; Endothelial Cells/*pathology; Glioblastoma/*pathology; Humans; *Models, Theoretical; Neoplastic Stem Cells/*pathology  
  Abstract (up) Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive brain tumor in human patients, is decidedly heterogeneous and highly vascularized. Glioma stem/initiating cells (GSC) are found to play a crucial role by increasing cancer aggressiveness and promoting resistance to therapy. Recently, cross-talk between GSC and vascular endothelial cells has been shown to significantly promote GSC self-renewal and tumor progression. Furthermore, GSC also transdifferentiate into bona fide vascular endothelial cells (GEC), which inherit mutations present in GSC and are resistant to traditional antiangiogenic therapies. Here we use three-dimensional mathematical modeling to investigate GBM progression and response to therapy. The model predicted that GSCs drive invasive fingering and that GEC spontaneously form a network within the hypoxic core, consistent with published experimental findings. Standard-of-care treatments using DNA-targeted therapy (radiation/chemo) together with antiangiogenic therapies reduced GBM tumor size but increased invasiveness. Anti-GEC treatments blocked the GEC support of GSCs and reduced tumor size but led to increased invasiveness. Anti-GSC therapies that promote differentiation or disturb the stem cell niche effectively reduced tumor invasiveness and size, but were ultimately limited in reducing tumor size because GECs maintain GSCs. Our study suggests that a combinatorial regimen targeting the vasculature, GSCs, and GECs, using drugs already approved by the FDA, can reduce both tumor size and invasiveness and could lead to tumor eradication. Cancer Res; 77(15); 4171-84. (c)2017 AACR.  
  Address Center for Complex Biological Systems, University of California, Irvine, California  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0008-5472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28536277 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96585  
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