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Author Bijangi-Vishehsaraei, K.; Reza Saadatzadeh, M.; Wang, H.; Nguyen, A.; Kamocka, M.M.; Cai, W.; Cohen-Gadol, A.A.; Halum, S.L.; Sarkaria, J.N.; Pollok, K.E.; Safa, A.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sulforaphane suppresses the growth of glioblastoma cells, glioblastoma stem cell-like spheroids, and tumor xenografts through multiple cell signaling pathways Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Neurosurgery Abbreviated Journal J Neurosurg  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-12  
  Keywords CCCP = carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide; DSB = double-strand break; EGF = epidermal growth factor; FACS = fluorescence-activated cell sorting; FGF = fibroblast growth factor; GBM = glioblastoma; GSC = glioblastoma stem cell; IC50 = 50% inhibition of cell survival; MRC = mitochondrial respiratory chain; MSC = mesenchymal stromal cell; NAC = N-acetylcysteine; NSG = nonobese diabetic scid gamma; PE = phycoerythrin; ROS = reactive oxygen species; SFN = sulforaphane; SSB = single-strand break; apoptosis; cancer stem cells; glioblastoma; oncology; sulforaphane  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE Defects in the apoptotic machinery and augmented survival signals contribute to drug resistance in glioblastoma (GBM). Moreover, another complexity related to GBM treatment is the concept that GBM development and recurrence may arise from the expression of GBM stem cells (GSCs). Therefore, the use of a multifaceted approach or multitargeted agents that affect specific tumor cell characteristics will likely be necessary to successfully eradicate GBM. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of sulforaphane (SFN)-a constituent of cruciferous vegetables with a multitargeted effect-as a therapeutic agent for GBM. METHODS The inhibitory effects of SFN on established cell lines, early primary cultures, CD133-positive GSCs, GSC-derived spheroids, and GBM xenografts were evaluated using various methods, including GSC isolation and the sphere-forming assay, analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis, cell growth inhibition assay, comet assays for assessing SFN-triggered DNA damage, confocal microscopy, Western blot analysis, and the determination of in vivo efficacy as assessed in human GBM xenograft models. RESULTS SFN triggered the significant inhibition of cell survival and induced apoptotic cell death, which was associated with caspase 3 and caspase 7 activation. Moreover, SFN triggered the formation of mitochondrial ROS, and SFN-triggered cell death was ROS dependent. Comet assays revealed that SFN increased single- and double-strand DNA breaks in GBM. Compared with the vehicle control cells, a significantly higher amount of gamma-H2AX foci correlated with an increase in DNA double-strand breaks in the SFN-treated samples. Furthermore, SFN robustly inhibited the growth of GBM cell-induced cell death in established cell cultures and early-passage primary cultures and, most importantly, was effective in eliminating GSCs, which play a major role in drug resistance and disease recurrence. In vivo studies revealed that SFN administration at 100 mg/kg for 5-day cycles repeated for 3 weeks significantly decreased the growth of ectopic xenografts that were established from the early passage of primary cultures of GBM10. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that SFN is a potent anti-GBM agent that targets several apoptosis and cell survival pathways and further preclinical and clinical studies may prove that SFN alone or in combination with other therapies may be potentially useful for GBM therapy.  
  Address Departments of 2 Pharmacology and Toxicology and  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3085 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28059653 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96613  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lee, J.W.; Lim, D.H.; Sung, K.W.; Lee, H.J.; Yi, E.S.; Yoo, K.H.; Koo, H.H.; Suh, Y.L.; Shin, H.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Tandem High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for High-Grade Gliomas in Children and Adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Korean Medical Science Abbreviated Journal J Korean Med Sci  
  Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 195-203  
  Keywords Adolescent; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/*therapeutic use; Brain Neoplasms/*drug therapy/mortality/therapy; Carboplatin/administration & dosage; Child; Child, Preschool; Etoposide/administration & dosage; Female; Glioma/*drug therapy/mortality/therapy; Humans; Male; Neoplasm Grading; Remission Induction; Retrospective Studies; Stem Cell Transplantation; Survival Rate; Thiotepa/administration & dosage; Transplantation, Autologous; Treatment Outcome; *Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation; *Brain Tumor; *Children; *High-dose Chemotherapy; *High-grade Glioma  
  Abstract With the aim to investigate the outcome of tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) for high-grade gliomas (HGGs), we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients with HGGs (16 glioblastomas, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 7 other HGGs) between 2006 and 2015. Gross or near total resection was possible in 11 patients. Front-line treatment after surgery was radiotherapy (RT) in 14 patients and chemotherapy in the remaining 16 patients including 3 patients less than 3 years of age. Eight of 12 patients who remained progression free and 5 of the remaining 18 patients who experienced progression during induction treatment underwent the first HDCT/auto-SCT with carboplatin + thiotepa + etoposide (CTE) regimen and 11 of them proceeded to the second HDCT/auto-SCT with cyclophosphamide + melphalan (CyM) regimen. One patient died from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) during the second HDCT/auto-SCT; otherwise, toxicities were manageable. Four patients in complete response (CR) and 3 of 7 patients in partial response (PR) or second PR at the first HDCT/auto-SCT remained event free: however, 2 patients with progressive tumor experienced progression again. The probabilities of 3-year overall survival (OS) after the first HDCT/auto-SCT in 11 patients in CR, PR, or second PR was 58.2% +/- 16.9%. Tumor status at the first HDCT/auto-SCT was the only significant factor for outcome after HDCT/auto-SCT. There was no difference in survival between glioblastoma and other HGGs. This study suggests that the outcome of HGGs in children and adolescents after HDCT/auto-SCT is encouraging if the patient could achieve CR or PR before HDCT/auto-SCT.  
  Address Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. shinhj@skku.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1011-8934 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28049229 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96614  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hira, V.V.V.; Verbovsek, U.; Breznik, B.; Srdic, M.; Novinec, M.; Kakar, H.; Wormer, J.; der Swaan, B.V.; Lenarcic, B.; Juliano, L.; Mehta, S.; Van Noorden, C.J.F.; Lah, T.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cathepsin K cleavage of SDF-1alpha inhibits its chemotactic activity towards glioblastoma stem-like cells Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Abbreviated Journal Biochim Biophys Acta  
  Volume 1864 Issue 3 Pages 594-603  
  Keywords Amino Acid Sequence; Cathepsin K/genetics/*metabolism; Cell Line, Tumor; Chemokine CXCL12/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism; Chemotaxis; Gene Expression; Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology; Humans; Neoplastic Stem Cells/*metabolism/pathology; Neuroglia/*metabolism/pathology; Protein Binding; Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical; Protein Conformation, beta-Strand; Proteolysis; Receptors, CXCR/genetics/metabolism; Receptors, CXCR4/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism; Stem Cell Niche/genetics; *Cathepsin K; *Glioma stem-like cells; *Niche; *Stromal-derived factor-1alpha  
  Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with poor patient survival that is at least partly caused by malignant and therapy-resistant glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) that are protected in GSLC niches. Previously, we have shown that the chemo-attractant stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), its C-X-C receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and the cysteine protease cathepsin K (CatK) are localized in GSLC niches in glioblastoma. Here, we investigated whether SDF-1alpha is a niche factor that through its interactions with CXCR4 and/or its second receptor CXCR7 on GSLCs facilitates their homing to niches. Furthermore, we aimed to prove that SDF-1alpha cleavage by CatK inactivates SDF-1alpha and inhibits the invasion of GSLCs. We performed mass spectrometric analysis of cleavage products of SDF-1alpha after proteolysis by CatK. We demonstrated that CatK cleaves SDF-1alpha at 3 sites in the N-terminus, which is the region of SDF-1alpha that binds to its receptors. Confocal imaging of human GBM tissue sections confirmed co-localization of SDF-1alpha and CatK in GSLC niches. In accordance, 2D and 3D invasion experiments using CXCR4/CXCR7-expressing GSLCs and GBM cells showed that SDF-1alpha had chemotactic activity whereas CatK cleavage products of SDF-1alpha did not. Besides, CXCR4 inhibitor plerixafor inhibited invasion of CXCR4/CXCR7-expressing GSLCs. In conclusion, CatK can cleave and inactivate SDF-1alpha. This implies that CatK activity facilitates migration of GSLCs out of niches. We propose that activation of CatK may be a promising strategy to prevent homing of GSLCs in niches and thus render these cells sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation.  
  Address Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 113, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3002 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:28040478 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96615  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Spencer, D.A.; Auffinger, B.M.; Murphy, J.P.; Muroski, M.E.; Qiao, J.; Gorind, Y.; Lesniak, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Hitting a Moving Target: Glioma Stem Cells Demand New Approaches in Glioblastoma Therapy Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Current Cancer Drug Targets Abbreviated Journal Curr Cancer Drug Targets  
  Volume 17 Issue 3 Pages 236-254  
  Keywords Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy/pathology; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects; Glioblastoma/*drug therapy/pathology; Glioma/drug therapy/*pathology; Humans; Molecular Targeted Therapy/*methods; Neoplastic Stem Cells/drug effects/*pathology/radiation effects; Chemotherapy; drug targets; glioblastoma multiforme; glioma stem cells; niches; recurrence; resistance  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to devastate patients and outfox investigators and clinicians despite the preponderance of research directed at its biology, pathogenesis and therapeutic advances. GBM routinely outlasts multidisciplinary treatment protocols, almost inevitably recurring in a yet more aggressive and resistant form with distinct genetic differences from the original tumor. Attempts to glean further insight into GBM point increasingly toward a subpopulation of cells with a stem-like phenotype. These cancer stem cells, similar to those now described in a variety of malignancies, are capable of tumorigenesis from a population of susceptible cells. CONCLUSIONS: Glioma stem cells have thus become a prevalent focus in GBM research for their presumed role in development, maintenance and recurrence of tumors. Glioma stem cells infiltrate the white matter surrounding tumors and often evade resection. They are uniquely suited both biochemically and environmentally to resist the best therapy currently available, intrinsically and efficiently resistant to standard chemo- and radiotherapy. These stem cells create an extremely heterogenous tumor that to date has had an answer for every therapeutic question, with continued dismal patient survival. Targeting this population of glioma stem cells may hold the long-awaited key to durable therapeutic efficacy in GBM.  
  Address Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, Northwestern University, 676 N. St. Clair Street, Suite 2210, Chicago, IL60611, United States  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1568-0096 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:27993114 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96616  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hu, B.; Emdad, L.; Kegelman, T.P.; Shen, X.-N.; Das, S.K.; Sarkar, D.; Fisher, P.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 Regulates beta-Catenin Signaling to Maintain Glioma Stem-like Stemness and Self-Renewal Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Molecular Cancer Research : MCR Abbreviated Journal Mol Cancer Res  
  Volume 15 Issue 2 Pages 225-233  
  Keywords Brain Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/*pathology; Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics/*metabolism; Cell Line, Tumor; Glioblastoma/genetics/metabolism/*pathology; Humans; Neoplastic Stem Cells/*pathology; Signal Transduction; Tumor Cells, Cultured; beta Catenin/genetics/*metabolism  
  Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme is a common malignant brain tumor that portends extremely poor patient survival. Recent studies reveal that glioma stem-like cells (GSC) are responsible for glioblastoma multiforme escape from chemo-radiotherapy and mediators of tumor relapse. Previous studies suggest that AEG-1 (MTDH), an oncogene upregulated in most types of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme, plays a focal role linking multiple signaling pathways in tumorigenesis. We now report a crucial role of AEG-1 in glioma stem cell biology. Primary glioblastoma multiforme cells were isolated from tumor specimens and cultured as neurospheres. Using the surface marker CD133, negative and positive cells were separated as nonstem and stem populations by cell sorting. Tissue samples and low passage cells were characterized and compared with normal controls. Functional biological assays were performed to measure stemness, self-renewal, differentiation, adhesion, protein-protein interactions, and cell signaling. AEG-1 was upregulated in all glioblastoma multiforme neurospheres compared with normal neural stem cells. Expression of AEG-1 was strongly associated with stem cell markers CD133 and SOX2. AEG-1 facilitated beta-catenin translocation into the nucleus by forming a complex with LEF1 and beta-catenin, subsequently activating Wnt signaling downstream genes. Through an AEG-1/Akt/GSK3beta signaling axis, AEG-1 controlled phosphorylation levels of beta-catenin that stabilized the protein. IMPLICATIONS: This study discovers a previously unrecognized role of AEG-1 in GSC biology and supports the significance of this gene as a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma multiforme. Mol Cancer Res; 15(2); 225-33. (c)2016 AACR.  
  Address VCU Massey Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1541-7786 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference (up)  
  Notes PMID:27903708 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96619  
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