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Author Chae, S.; Desai, S.; Crowell, M.; Sedgh, G.; Singh, S.
Title Characteristics of women obtaining induced abortions in selected low- and middle-income countries Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages (down) e0172976
Keywords Abortion, Legal/*economics/psychology/*statistics & numerical data; Adolescent; Adult; Africa; Asia; Caribbean Region; Developing Countries/*economics; Educational Status; Europe; Female; Humans; Latin America; Marital Status/statistics & numerical data; Parity/physiology; Poverty/psychology/*statistics & numerical data; Pregnancy; *Pregnancy, Unplanned
Abstract BACKGROUND: In 2010-2014, approximately 86% of abortions took place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although abortion incidence varies minimally across geographical regions, it varies widely by subregion and within countries by subgroups of women. Differential abortion levels stem from variation in the level of unintended pregnancies and in the likelihood that women with unintended pregnancies obtain abortions. OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of women obtaining induced abortions in LMICs. METHODS: We use data from official statistics, population-based surveys, and abortion patient surveys to examine variation in the percentage distribution of abortions and abortion rates by age at abortion, marital status, parity, wealth, education, and residence. We analyze data from five countries in Africa, 13 in Asia, eight in Europe, and two in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). RESULTS: Women across all sociodemographic subgroups obtain abortions. In most countries, women aged 20-29 obtained the highest proportion of abortions, and while adolescents obtained a substantial fraction of abortions, they do not make up a disproportionate share. Region-specific patterns were observed in the distribution of abortions by parity. In many countries, a higher fraction of abortions occurred among women of high socioeconomic status, as measured by wealth status, educational attainment, and urban residence. Due to limited data on marital status, it is unknown whether married or unmarried women make up a larger share of abortions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to identify subgroups of women with disproportionate levels of abortion, and can inform policies and programs to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancies; and in LMICs that have restrictive abortion laws, these findings can also inform policies to minimize the consequences of unsafe abortion and motivate liberalization of abortion laws. Program planners, policymakers, and advocates can use this information to improve access to safe abortion services, postabortion care, and contraceptive services.
Address Guttmacher Institute, New York, New York, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28355285 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97641
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Author Brown, D.V.; Filiz, G.; Daniel, P.M.; Hollande, F.; Dworkin, S.; Amiridis, S.; Kountouri, N.; Ng, W.; Morokoff, A.P.; Mantamadiotis, T.
Title Expression of CD133 and CD44 in glioblastoma stem cells correlates with cell proliferation, phenotype stability and intra-tumor heterogeneity Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages (down) e0172791
Keywords AC133 Antigen/*metabolism; Animals; Antigens, CD44/*metabolism; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism; Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism; Brain Neoplasms/*metabolism/pathology; Cell Proliferation; Female; Glioblastoma/*metabolism/pathology; Humans; Hypoxia; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local; Neoplastic Stem Cells/*metabolism/pathology; Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism; Phenotype
Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is a heterogeneous tumor of the brain with a poor prognosis due to recurrence and drug resistance following therapy. Genome-wide profiling has revealed the existence of distinct GBM molecular subtypes that respond differently to aggressive therapies. Despite this, molecular subtype does not predict recurrence or drug resistance and overall survival is similar across subtypes. One of the key features contributing to tumor recurrence and resistance to therapy is proposed to be an underlying subpopulation of resistant glioma stem cells (GSC). CD133 expression has been used as a marker of GSCs, however recent evidence suggests the relationship between CD133 expression, GSCs and molecular subtype is more complex than initially proposed. The expression of CD133, Olig2 and CD44 was investigated using patient derived glioma stem-like cells (PDGCs) in vitro and in vivo. Different PDGCs exhibited a characteristic equilibrium of distinct CD133+ and CD44+ subpopulations and the influence of environmental factors on the intra-tumor equilibrium of CD133+ and CD44+ cells in PDGCs was also investigated, with hypoxia inducing a CD44+ to CD133+ shift and chemo-radiotherapy inducing a CD133+ to CD44+ shift. These data suggest that surveillance and modulation of intra-tumor heterogeneity using molecular markers at initial surgery and surgery for recurrent GBM may be important for more effective management of GBM.
Address Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28241049 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96604
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Author Correa, E.N.; Padez, C.M.P.; Abreu, A.H. de; Vasconcelos, F. de A.G. de
Title Geographic and socioeconomic distribution of food vendors: a case study of a municipality in the Southern Brazil Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Cadernos de Saude Publica Abbreviated Journal Cad Saude Publica
Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages (down) e00145015
Keywords Brazil; Commerce/*statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; Food/*statistics & numerical data; *Food Supply; Geography; Humans; Population Density; Poverty; Socioeconomic Factors; Statistics, Nonparametric
Abstract The objective of this study was to identify the food vendor distribution profile of the city of Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and investigate its association with the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of different municipal regions. This descriptive, cross-sectional study obtained the location of food vendors from secondary data from different institutional sources. The density of different types of food vendors per 1,000 inhabitants in each municipal weighted area was calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test compared the mean density of food vendors and the weighted income areas. The lowest-income regions had the lowest density of butchers, snack bars, supermarkets, bakeries/pastry shops, natural product stores, juice bars, and convenience stores. The identification of these areas may encourage the creation of public policies that facilitate healthy food startups and/or maintenance of healthy food vendors, especially in the lowest-income regions.
Address Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brasil
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0102-311X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28380124 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 98027
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Author Girardi, S.N.; Carvalho, C.L.; Maas, L.W.D.; Araujo, J.F.; Massote, A.W.; Stralen, A.C. de S. van; Souza, O.A. de
Title [Preferences for work in primary care among medical students in Minas Gerais State, Brazil: evidence from a discrete choice experiment] Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Cadernos de Saude Publica Abbreviated Journal Cad Saude Publica
Volume 33 Issue 8 Pages (down) e00075316
Keywords Brazil; *Career Choice; Choice Behavior; Female; Humans; Income; Male; *Primary Health Care; *Professional Practice Location; Sex Factors; *Students, Medical; Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract This article presents the results of a discrete choice experiment (DCE) conducted in 2012 with 277 final-year medical students from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experiment tested students' preferences concerning future work as physicians in primary health care, based on hypothetical job scenarios aimed at measuring the likelihood of placement in areas with a shortage of doctors. Application of DCE involved (i) a qualitative stage to define the attributes and their respective levels to comprise the job scenarios, (ii) construction and application of the instrument, and (iii) analysis with application of multinomial logit with conditional probability to estimate the weight of attributes and to construct scenarios for choice probability. The results indicate that the job attribute that most impacted students' choice was location, followed by job conditions, pay, access to medical residency, type of employment relationship, and workload. Students from private medical schools, with higher family income, and females were generally more likely to resist job assignments in unsafe urban areas and remote areas of the countryside. The job scenarios that proved most plausible in terms of public intervention were those that combined middle-level wages, good working conditions, and 10 to 20 bonus points on medical residency exams.
Address Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, Brasil
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Portuguese Summary Language Original Title Preferencias para o trabalho na atencao primaria por estudantes de medicina em Minas Gerais, Brasil: evidencias de um experimento de preferencia declarada
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0102-311X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28832780 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97630
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Author Li, M.; Xiao, A.; Floyd, D.; Olmez, I.; Lee, J.; Godlewski, J.; Bronisz, A.; Bhat, K.P.L.; Sulman, E.P.; Nakano, I.; Purow, B.
Title CDK4/6 inhibition is more active against the glioblastoma proneural subtype Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Oncotarget Abbreviated Journal Oncotarget
Volume 8 Issue 33 Pages (down) 55319-55331
Keywords Cdk4/6; glioblastoma; mesenchymal; palbociclib; proneural
Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor. Gene expression profiling has classified GBM into distinct subtypes, including proneural, mesenchymal, and classical, and identifying therapeutic vulnerabilities of these subtypes is an extremely high priority. We leveraged The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, in particular for microRNA expression, to seek druggable core pathways in GBM. The E2F1-regulated miR-17 92 cluster and its analogs are shown to be highly expressed in proneural GBM and in GSC lines, suggesting the E2F cell cycle pathway might be a key driver in proneural GBM. Consistently, CDK4/6 inhibition with palbociclib preferentially inhibited cell proliferation in vitro in a majority of proneural GSCs versus those of other subtypes. Palbociclib treatment significantly prolonged survival of mice with established intracranial xenografts of a proneural GSC line. We show that most of these sensitive PN GSCs expressed higher levels of CDK6 and had intact Rb1, while two GSC lines with CDK4 overexpression and null Rb1 were highly resistant to palbociclib. Importantly, palbociclib treatment of proneural GSCs upregulated mesenchymal-associated markers and downregulated proneural-associated markers, suggesting that CDK4/6 inhibition induced proneural-mesenchymal transition and underscoring the enhanced role of the E2F cell cycle pathway in the proneural subtype. Lastly, the combination of palbociclib and N,N-diethylaminobenzaldehyde, an inhibitor of the mesenchymal driver ALDH1A3, showed strong synergistic inhibitory effects against proneural GSC proliferation. Taken together, our results reveal that proneural GBM has increased vulnerability to CDK4/6 inhibition, and the proneural subtype undergoes dynamic reprogramming upon palbociclib treatment-suggesting the need for a combination therapeutic strategy.
Address Neuro-Oncology Division, Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1949-2553 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28903422 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96569
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