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Author Villagra, P.; Quintana, C.
Title Disaster Governance for Community Resilience in Coastal Towns: Chilean Case Studies Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health
Volume 14 Issue 9 Pages (up)
Keywords community resilience; disaster governance; tsunami
Abstract This study aimed to further our understanding of a characteristic of Community Resilience known as Disaster Governance. Three attributes of Disaster Governance-redundancy, diversity, and overlap-were studied in four coastal towns in southern Chile that are at risk of tsunamis. Overall, we explored how different spatial structures of human settlements influence Disaster Governance. Using the Projective Mapping Technique, the distribution of emergency institutions (N = 32) and uses given to specific sites (e.g., for refuge, sanitary purposes and medical attention) were mapped. Content and GIS analyses (Directional Distribution and Kernel Density Index) were used to explore the dispersion and concentration of institutions and uses in each town. Disaster Governance was found to be highly influenced by decisions taken during regional, urban, and emergency planning. Governance is better in towns of higher order in the communal hierarchical structure. Most of the emergency institutions were found to be located in central and urban areas, which, in turn, assures more redundancy, overlap, and diversity in governance in the event of a tsunami. Lack of flexibility of emergency plans also limits governance in rural and indigenous areas. While the spatial relationships found in this study indicate that urban sectors have better Disaster Governance than rural and indigenous sectors, the influence of resource availability after tsunamis, the role and responsibility of different levels of governments, and the politics of disaster also play an important role in Disaster Governance for determining Community Resilience. These findings shed light on emergency planning and aspects of the Disaster Management cycle.
Address Laboratorio de Paisaje y Resiliencia Urbana, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509000, Chile. contacto@pru-lab.cl
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28906480 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97628
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Author Basso, C.; Garcia da Rosa, E.; Lairihoy, R.; Caffera, R.M.; Roche, I.; Gonzalez, C.; da Rosa, R.; Gularte, A.; Alfonso-Sierra, E.; Petzold, M.; Kroeger, A.; Sommerfeld, J.
Title Scaling Up of an Innovative Intervention to Reduce Risk of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Transmission in Uruguay in the Framework of an Intersectoral Approach with and without Community Participation Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Abbreviated Journal Am J Trop Med Hyg
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords
Abstract To contribute to the prevention of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, a process of scaling up an innovative intervention to reduce Aedes aegypti habitats, was carried out in the city of Salto (Uruguay) based on a transdisciplinary analysis of the eco-bio-social determinants. The intervention in one-third of the city included the distributions of plastic bags for all households to collect all discarded water containers that were recollected by the Ministry of Health and the Municipality vector control services. The results were evaluated in 20 randomly assigned clusters of 100 households each, in the intervention and control arm. The intervention resulted in a significantly larger decrease in the number of pupae per person index (as a proxy for adult vector abundance) than the corresponding decrease in the control areas (both areas decreased by winter effects). The reduction of intervention costs (“incremental costs”) in relation to routine vector control activities was 46%. Community participation increased the collaboration with the intervention program considerably (from 48% of bags handed back out of the total of bags delivered to 59% of bags handed back). Although the costs increased by 26% compared with intervention without community participation, the acceptability of actions by residents increased from 66% to 78%.
Address Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0002-9637 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28820690 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97631
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Author Goncalves, P.B.; Hallal, P.C.; Hino, A.A.F.; Reis, R.S.
Title Individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adults from Curitiba, Brazil Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Public Health
Volume Issue Pages (up)
Keywords Accelerometry; Adults; Environmental correlates; Individual correlates; Physical activity; Sedentary time
Abstract OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association of individual and neighborhood environment characteristics and objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in adults from Curitiba, Brazil. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted through face-to-face household interviews in 2010. The analytic sample included 305 adults aged 20-65 years recruited from 32 census tracts selected according to neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic status. Individual and environmental PA correlates were evaluated through standardized and valid self-reported measures, including the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale. Minutes per week of PA and ST were assessed through accelerometry. Multi-level regression models were used in the analyses. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders the strongest individual and environmental correlates associated with ST was residential density (B = 0.14; p = 0.008), light-intensity PA was being a father/mother (B = 35.71; p = 0.025) and moderate-to-vigorous PA was sex (B = 0.91; p < 0.001) and number of cars (one car, B = -1.05; two cars, B = -1.14; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The associations found with individual and environmental correlates varied accordingly across all outcomes. Future changes in policies and infrastructure should consider the social context of the community and improvements to promote a safer environment in the neighborhood.
Address Prevention Research Center, Brown School, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1661-8556 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28717827 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97632
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Author Florindo, A.A.; Barrozo, L.V.; Cabral-Miranda, W.; Rodrigues, E.Q.; Turrell, G.; Goldbaum, M.; Cesar, C.L.G.; Giles-Corti, B.
Title Public Open Spaces and Leisure-Time Walking in Brazilian Adults Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health
Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages (up)
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Bicycling; Brazil; Child; Cities; City Planning; Cluster Analysis; Demography; Environment Design; Family Characteristics; Female; Geographic Information Systems; Health Surveys; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Parks, Recreational; Residence Characteristics/*statistics & numerical data; Surveys and Questionnaires; Walking/*statistics & numerical data; Young Adult; Brazil; adults; built environment; leisure-time walking; public open spaces
Abstract Access to public open space is important to increase leisure-time walking (LTW) in high-income countries, but there is little evidence in middle-income countries. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine the relationship between LTW and the presence of different public open spaces (parks, bike paths, and squares) and the mix of these recreational destinations near the homes of adults participating in the Sao Paulo Health Survey (n = 3145). LTW was evaluated by a questionnaire. We delineated buffers (500, 1000, and 1500 m) from the geographic coordinates of the adults' residential addresses using a geographic information system. We used multilevel logistic regression taking account of clustering by census tracts and households, and with adjustment for social, demographics, and health characteristics. The main results showed that the presence of at least two recreational destinations within a 500-m buffer of participants' homes were associated with an increased odds of LTW compared with no destinations present (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.09-2.55). No associations were found for destinations further away. These results support actions outlined in the new urban plan for Sao Paulo city and could be used to highlight the importance access to a mix of public open spaces to promote physical activity in megacities of middle-income countries.
Address Adjunct, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Australia. billie.giles-corti@rmit.edu.au
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28545242 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97636
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Author Corburn, J.; Sverdlik, A.
Title Slum Upgrading and Health Equity Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages (up)
Keywords Africa; Asia; Climate Change; Employment; Environmental Health; *Health Equity; Housing; Humans; Latin America; *Poverty Areas; Socioeconomic Factors; Urban Health; Urban Population; climate change adaptation; health equity; health in all policies; housing; participation; slum upgrading; slums; social determinants of health; sustainable development goals
Abstract Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.
Address Department of City and Regional Planning & School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. sverdlik@berkeley.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28338613 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97642
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