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Author McCloskey, M.L.; Tarazona-Meza, C.E.; Jones-Smith, J.C.; Miele, C.H.; Gilman, R.H.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A.; Miranda, J.J.; Checkley, W.
Title Disparities in dietary intake and physical activity patterns across the urbanization divide in the Peruvian Andes Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages (up) 90
Keywords 24-h recall; Chronic diseases; Low- and middle income countries; Nutrition transition; Overweight; Urbanization
Abstract BACKGROUND: Diet and activity are thought to worsen with urbanization, thereby increasing risk of obesity and chronic diseases. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns across the urbanization divide may help identify pathways, and therefore intervention targets, leading to the epidemic of overweight seen in low- and middle-income populations. Therefore, we sought to characterize diet and activity in a population-based study of urban and rural residents in Puno, Peru. METHODS: We compared diet and activity in 1005 (503 urban, 502 rural) participants via a lifestyle questionnaire. We then recruited an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 50 (25 urban, 25 rural) participants to further characterize diet and activity. Among these participants, diet composition and macronutrient intake was assessed by three non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and physical activity was assessed using Omron JH-720itc pedometers. RESULTS: Among 1005 participants, we found that urban residents consumed protein-rich foods, refined grains, sugary items, and fresh produce more frequently than rural residents. Among the 50 subsample participants, urban dwellers consumed more protein (47 vs. 39 g; p = 0.05), more carbohydrates (280 vs. 220 g; p = 0.03), more sugary foods (98 vs. 48 g, p = 0.02) and had greater dietary diversity (6.4 vs 5.8; p = 0.04). Rural subsample participants consumed more added salt (3.1 vs 1.7 g, p = 0.006) and tended to consume more vegetable oil. As estimated by pedometers, urban subsample participants burned fewer calories per day (191 vs 270 kcal, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Although urbanization is typically thought to increase consumption of fat, sugar and salt, our 24-h recall results were mixed and showed lower levels of obesity in rural Puno were not necessarily indicative of nutritionally-balanced diets. All subsample participants had relatively traditional lifestyles (low fat intake, limited consumption of processed foods and frequent walking) that may play a role in chronic disease outcomes in this region.
Address Biomedical Research Unit, A.B. PRISMA, Lima, Peru. wcheckl1@jhmi.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1479-5868 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28693514 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97446
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author McCloskey, M.L.; Tarazona-Meza, C.E.; Jones-Smith, J.C.; Miele, C.H.; Gilman, R.H.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A.; Miranda, J.J.; Checkley, W.
Title Disparities in dietary intake and physical activity patterns across the urbanization divide in the Peruvian Andes Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages (up) 90
Keywords 24-h recall; Chronic diseases; Low- and middle income countries; Nutrition transition; Overweight; Urbanization
Abstract BACKGROUND: Diet and activity are thought to worsen with urbanization, thereby increasing risk of obesity and chronic diseases. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns across the urbanization divide may help identify pathways, and therefore intervention targets, leading to the epidemic of overweight seen in low- and middle-income populations. Therefore, we sought to characterize diet and activity in a population-based study of urban and rural residents in Puno, Peru. METHODS: We compared diet and activity in 1005 (503 urban, 502 rural) participants via a lifestyle questionnaire. We then recruited an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 50 (25 urban, 25 rural) participants to further characterize diet and activity. Among these participants, diet composition and macronutrient intake was assessed by three non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and physical activity was assessed using Omron JH-720itc pedometers. RESULTS: Among 1005 participants, we found that urban residents consumed protein-rich foods, refined grains, sugary items, and fresh produce more frequently than rural residents. Among the 50 subsample participants, urban dwellers consumed more protein (47 vs. 39 g; p = 0.05), more carbohydrates (280 vs. 220 g; p = 0.03), more sugary foods (98 vs. 48 g, p = 0.02) and had greater dietary diversity (6.4 vs 5.8; p = 0.04). Rural subsample participants consumed more added salt (3.1 vs 1.7 g, p = 0.006) and tended to consume more vegetable oil. As estimated by pedometers, urban subsample participants burned fewer calories per day (191 vs 270 kcal, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Although urbanization is typically thought to increase consumption of fat, sugar and salt, our 24-h recall results were mixed and showed lower levels of obesity in rural Puno were not necessarily indicative of nutritionally-balanced diets. All subsample participants had relatively traditional lifestyles (low fat intake, limited consumption of processed foods and frequent walking) that may play a role in chronic disease outcomes in this region.
Address Biomedical Research Unit, A.B. PRISMA, Lima, Peru. wcheckl1@jhmi.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1479-5868 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28693514 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97634
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author McCloskey, M.L.; Tarazona-Meza, C.E.; Jones-Smith, J.C.; Miele, C.H.; Gilman, R.H.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A.; Miranda, J.J.; Checkley, W.
Title Disparities in dietary intake and physical activity patterns across the urbanization divide in the Peruvian Andes Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages (up) 90
Keywords 24-h recall; Chronic diseases; Low- and middle income countries; Nutrition transition; Overweight; Urbanization
Abstract BACKGROUND: Diet and activity are thought to worsen with urbanization, thereby increasing risk of obesity and chronic diseases. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns across the urbanization divide may help identify pathways, and therefore intervention targets, leading to the epidemic of overweight seen in low- and middle-income populations. Therefore, we sought to characterize diet and activity in a population-based study of urban and rural residents in Puno, Peru. METHODS: We compared diet and activity in 1005 (503 urban, 502 rural) participants via a lifestyle questionnaire. We then recruited an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 50 (25 urban, 25 rural) participants to further characterize diet and activity. Among these participants, diet composition and macronutrient intake was assessed by three non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and physical activity was assessed using Omron JH-720itc pedometers. RESULTS: Among 1005 participants, we found that urban residents consumed protein-rich foods, refined grains, sugary items, and fresh produce more frequently than rural residents. Among the 50 subsample participants, urban dwellers consumed more protein (47 vs. 39 g; p = 0.05), more carbohydrates (280 vs. 220 g; p = 0.03), more sugary foods (98 vs. 48 g, p = 0.02) and had greater dietary diversity (6.4 vs 5.8; p = 0.04). Rural subsample participants consumed more added salt (3.1 vs 1.7 g, p = 0.006) and tended to consume more vegetable oil. As estimated by pedometers, urban subsample participants burned fewer calories per day (191 vs 270 kcal, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Although urbanization is typically thought to increase consumption of fat, sugar and salt, our 24-h recall results were mixed and showed lower levels of obesity in rural Puno were not necessarily indicative of nutritionally-balanced diets. All subsample participants had relatively traditional lifestyles (low fat intake, limited consumption of processed foods and frequent walking) that may play a role in chronic disease outcomes in this region.
Address Biomedical Research Unit, A.B. PRISMA, Lima, Peru. wcheckl1@jhmi.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1479-5868 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28693514 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 98015
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Polex-Wolf, J.; Yeo, G.S.H.; O'Rahilly, S.
Title Impaired prohormone processing: a grand unified theory for features of Prader-Willi syndrome? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication The Journal of Clinical Investigation Abbreviated Journal J Clin Invest
Volume 127 Issue 1 Pages (up) 98-99
Keywords
Abstract Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex disorder that manifests with an array of phenotypes, such as hypotonia and difficulties in feeding during infancy and reduced energy expenditure, hyperphagia, and developmental delays later in life. While the genetic cause has long been known, it is still not clear how mutations at this locus produce this array of phenotypes. In this issue of the JCI, Burnett and colleagues used a comprehensive approach to gain insight into how PWS-associated mutations drive disease. Using neurons derived from PWS patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and mouse models, the authors provide evidence that neuroendocrine PWS-associated phenotypes may be linked to reduced expression of prohormone convertase 1 (PC1). While these compelling results support a critical role for PC1 deficiency in PWS, more work needs to be done to fully understand how and to what extent loss of this prohormone processing enzyme underlies disease manifestations in PWS patients.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-9738 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27941250 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 95907
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gersey, Z.C.; Rodriguez, G.A.; Barbarite, E.; Sanchez, A.; Walters, W.M.; Ohaeto, K.C.; Komotar, R.J.; Graham, R.M.
Title Curcumin decreases malignant characteristics of glioblastoma stem cells via induction of reactive oxygen species Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication BMC Cancer Abbreviated Journal BMC Cancer
Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages (up) 99
Keywords Acetylcysteine/pharmacology; Adult; Antineoplastic Agents/*pharmacology; Cell Proliferation/drug effects; Cell Survival/drug effects; Curcumin/*pharmacology; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm; Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor; Free Radical Scavengers; Glioblastoma/drug therapy/pathology; Humans; Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/metabolism; Inhibitory Concentration 50; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism; Neoplastic Stem Cells/*drug effects; Oxidative Stress; Reactive Oxygen Species/*metabolism; STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism; Tumor Cells, Cultured; Brain tumor; Curcumin; Glioblastoma; Natural product; Reactive oxygen species; Stat3; Stem cell
Abstract BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of primary brain tumor in adults. Following standard treatment of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, patients are expected to survive 12-14 months. Theorized cause of disease recurrence in these patients is tumor cell repopulation through the proliferation of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells. Current research has revealed curcumin, the principal ingredient in turmeric, can modulate multiple signaling pathways important for cancer stem cell self-renewal and survival. METHODS: Following resection, tumor specimens were dissociated and glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) were propagated in neurosphere media and characterized via immunocytochemistry. Cell viability was determined with MTS assay. GSC proliferation, sphere forming and colony forming assays were conducted through standard counting methods. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was examined using the fluorescent molecular probe CM-H2DCFA. Effects on cell signaling pathways were elucidated by western blot. RESULTS: We evaluate the effects of curcumin on patient-derived GSC lines. We demonstrate a curcumin-induced dose-dependent decrease in GSC viability with an approximate IC50 of 25 muM. Treatment with sub-toxic levels (2.5 muM) of curcumin significantly decreased GSC proliferation, sphere forming ability and colony forming potential. Curcumin induced ROS, promoted MAPK pathway activation, downregulated STAT3 activity and IAP family members. Inhibition of ROS with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine reversed these effects indicating a ROS dependent mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: Discoveries made in this investigation may lead to a non-toxic intervention designed to prevent recurrence in glioblastoma by targeting glioblastoma stem cells.
Address Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami Brain Tumor Initiative (UMBTI) Research Laboratory, Lois Pope LIFE Center, 2nd Floor, 1095 NW 14th Terrace, Miami, Florida, 33136, USA. rgraham@med.miami.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1471-2407 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28160777 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96610
Permanent link to this record