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Author Navarrete-Reyes, A.P.; Medina-Rimoldi, C.T.; Avila-Funes, J.A.
Title Correlates of subjective transportation deficiency among older adults attending outpatient clinics in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Geriatrics & Gerontology International Abbreviated Journal Geriatr Gerontol Int
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Latin America; disability; mobility; older adults; transportation
Abstract AIM: Older adults frequently report problems of transportation. Little is known about the correlates of transportation deficiency in Latin America. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlates of subjective transportation deficiency (STD) among community-dwelling older adults attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 228 participants aged >/=70 years being followed in any of the outpatient clinics of a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out in order to identify the correlates of STD. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 79.8 years (SD 6.4) and 67.1% were women. STD was present in 46% of participants. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that female sex, illiteracy, mobility disability and the use of an assistive walking device had an independent and statistically significant association with STD. CONCLUSIONS: Female sex, illiteracy, mobility disability and the use of an assistive walking device were independent correlates of STD in the present study. Identifying the frequency and correlates of transportation deficiency in vulnerable populations will allow for the identification and implementation of useful public policies, as well as for the optimization of prevention and treatment strategies in an attempt to preserve mobility and autonomy, especially in low- and middle-income countries where previous work on transportation deficiency is lacking. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; : -**.
Address Research Center INSERM, Bordeaux, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1447-0594 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28190303 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97448
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Author de Morais Sato, P.; Unsain, R.F.; Gittelsohn, J.; Sanches Tavares da Silva, J.G.; Goncalves Perez, I.C.; Baeza Scagliusi, F.
Title Strategies used by overweight and obese low-income mothers to feed their families in urban Brazil Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite
Volume 111 Issue (up) Pages 63-70
Keywords Brazil; Food insecurity; Low-income; Obesity; Overweight; Women
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare strategies adopted by overweight and obese low-income mothers living in different vulnerable contexts to deal with food constraints and feed their families. DESIGN: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed with exploratory content analysis and the number of segments per theme was used to compare neighborhoods. SETTING: Three low-income neighborhoods in Santos, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of 21 overweight or obese mothers. RESULTS: We identified three main types of strategies, namely, food acquisition, cooking, and eating. Food acquisition included social support and food-sourcing strategies. Social support strategies ranged from macro (governmental programs) to micro (family) levels. Food-sourcing strategies involved price research and use of credit to buy foods. Cooking approaches included optimizing food (e.g., adding water to beans), avoiding wastefulness, and substitutions (e.g., using water instead of milk when making cakes). Eating themes ranged from lack of quantity to lack of quality. Strategies to deal with the lack of food were affected by family dynamics, such as prioritizing provision of fruits to children. Food choices (e.g., low consumption of fruits and high consumption of fatty meats) derived from strategies may help promote overweight and obesity. Furthermore, for participants, financial constraints were perceived as barriers to following nutritionists' recommendations and weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the barriers that low-income women face in adopting a healthy diet and sheds light on the importance of the symbolic value of food, even in the context of food insecurity. Finally, it suggests that environmental aspects could increase the accessibility to fruits and vegetables. These findings could be used to inform the planning and implementation of interventions.
Address Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715 – Sao Paulo/SP – CEP 01255-000, Sao Paulo/SP, Brazil
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0195-6663 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28034737 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97449
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Author Ramke, J.; Petkovic, J.; Welch, V.; Blignault, I.; Gilbert, C.; Blanchet, K.; Christensen, R.; Zwi, A.B.; Tugwell, P.
Title Interventions to improve access to cataract surgical services and their impact on equity in low- and middle-income countries Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Volume 11 Issue (up) Pages Cd011307
Keywords
Abstract BACKGROUND: Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the prevalence is inequitably distributed between and within countries. Interventions have been undertaken to improve cataract surgical services, however, the effectiveness of these interventions on promoting equity is not known. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on equity of interventions to improve access to cataract services for populations with cataract blindness (and visual impairment) in LMICs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 12 April 2017), Embase Ovid (1980 to 12 April 2017), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 12 April 2017), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 12 April 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 12 April 2017 and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 12 April 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that reported on strategies to improve access to cataract services in LMICs using the following study designs: randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series studies. Included studies were conducted in LMICs, and were targeted at disadvantaged populations, or disaggregated outcome data by 'PROGRESS-Plus' factors (Place of residence; Race/ethnicity/ culture/ language; Occupation; Gender/sex; Religion; Education; Socio-economic status; Social capital/networks. The 'Plus' component includes disability, sexual orientation and age). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (JR and JP) independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed them for risk of bias. Meta-analysis was not possible, so included studies were synthesised in table and text. MAIN RESULTS: From a total of 2865 studies identified in the search, two met our eligibility criteria, both of which were cluster-RCTs conducted in rural China. The way in which the trials were conducted means that the risk of bias is unclear. In both studies, villages were randomised to be either an intervention or control group. Adults identified with vision-impairing cataract, following village-based vision and eye health assessment, either received an intervention to increase uptake of cataract surgery (if their village was an intervention group), or to receive 'standard care' (if their village was a control group).One study (n = 434), randomly allocated 26 villages or townships to the intervention, which involved watching an informational video and receiving counselling about cataract and cataract surgery, while the control group were advised that they had decreased vision due to cataract and it could be treated, without being shown the video or receiving counselling. There was low-certainty evidence that providing information and counselling had no effect on uptake of referral to the hospital (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.67, 1 RCT, 434 participants) and little or no effect on the uptake of surgery (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.84, 1 RCT, 434 participants). We assessed the level of evidence to be of low-certainty for both outcomes, due to indirectness of evidence and imprecision of results.The other study (n = 355, 24 towns randomised) included three intervention arms: free surgery; free surgery plus reimbursement of transport costs; and free surgery plus free transport to and from the hospital. These were compared to the control group, which was reminded to use the “low-cost” ( USD 38) surgical service. There was low-certainty evidence that surgical fee waiver with/without transport provision or reimbursement increased uptake of surgery (RR 1.94, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.31, 1 RCT, 355 participants). We assessed the level of evidence to be of low-certainty due to indirectness of evidence and imprecision of results.Neither of the studies reported our primary outcome of change in prevalence of cataract blindness, or other outcomes such as cataract surgical coverage, surgical outcome, or adverse effects. Neither study disaggregated outcomes by social subgroups to enable further assessment of equity effects. We sought data from both studies and obtained data from one; the information video and counselling intervention did not have a differential effect across the PROGRESS-Plus categories with available data (place of residence, gender, education level, socioeconomic status and social capital). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence on the effect on equity of interventions to improve access to cataract services in LMICs is limited. We identified only two studies, both conducted in rural China. Assessment of equity effects will be improved if future studies disaggregate outcomes by relevant social subgroups. To assist with assessing generalisability of findings to other settings, robust data on contextual factors are also needed.
Address School of Population Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1361-6137 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29119547 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97501
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Author Corvalan, C.; Garmendia, M.L.; Jones-Smith, J.; Lutter, C.K.; Miranda, J.J.; Pedraza, L.S.; Popkin, B.M.; Ramirez-Zea, M.; Salvo, D.; Stein, A.D.
Title Nutrition status of children in Latin America Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity Abbreviated Journal Obes Rev
Volume 18 Suppl 2 Issue (up) Pages 7-18
Keywords Latin America; childhood obesity; children; nutrition and physical activity situation
Abstract The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence-based obesity prevention interventions.
Address Hubert Department of Global Health of the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1467-7881 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28741907 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97507
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Author Villalobos, A.M.; Barraza, F.; Jorquera, H.; Schauer, J.J.
Title Wood burning pollution in southern Chile: PM2.5 source apportionment using CMB and molecular markers Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut
Volume 225 Issue (up) Pages 514-523
Keywords Aerosols/analysis; Air Pollutants/*analysis; Chile; Cities; Coal; Dust; *Environmental Monitoring; Fires; Heating; Nitrates/analysis; Particulate Matter/*analysis; Seasons; Smoke; Sulfates/analysis; Wood/chemistry; Cmb-Mm; Fuel poverty; Source apportionment; Southern Chile; Sustainable urban development; Wood burning
Abstract Temuco is a mid-size city representative of severe wood smoke pollution in southern Chile; i.e., ambient 24-h PM2.5 concentrations have exceeded 150 mug/m3 in the winter season and the top concentration reached 372 mug/m3 in 2010. Annual mean concentrations have decreased but are still above 30 mug/m3. For the very first time, a molecular marker source apportionment of ambient organic carbon (OC) and PM2.5 was conducted in Temuco. Primary resolved sources for PM2.5 were wood smoke (37.5%), coal combustion (4.4%), diesel vehicles (3.3%), dust (2.2%) and vegetative detritus (0.7%). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 (sulfates, nitrates and ammonium) contributed 4.8% and unresolved organic aerosols (generated from volatile emissions from incomplete wood combustion), including secondary organic aerosols, contributed 47.1%. Adding the contributions of unresolved organic aerosols to those from primary wood smoke implies that wood burning is responsible for 84.6% of the ambient PM2.5 in Temuco. This predominance of wood smoke is ultimately due to widespread poverty and a lack of efficient household heating methods. The government has been implementing emission abatement policies but achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 in southern Chile remains a challenge.
Address Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 660 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28318790 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97509
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