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Author Herrero, M.; Thornton, P.K.; Power, B.; Bogard, J.R.; Remans, R.; Fritz, S.; Gerber, J.S.; Nelson, G.; See, L.; Waha, K.; Watson, R.A.; West, P.C.; Samberg, L.H.; van de Steeg, J.; Stephenson, E.; van Wijk, M.; Havlik, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Farming and the geography of nutrient production for human use: a transdisciplinary analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Lancet. Planetary Health Abbreviated Journal Lancet Planet Health  
  Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages e33-e42  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Information about the global structure of agriculture and nutrient production and its diversity is essential to improve present understanding of national food production patterns, agricultural livelihoods, and food chains, and their linkages to land use and their associated ecosystems services. Here we provide a plausible breakdown of global agricultural and nutrient production by farm size, and also study the associations between farm size, agricultural diversity, and nutrient production. This analysis is crucial to design interventions that might be appropriately targeted to promote healthy diets and ecosystems in the face of population growth, urbanisation, and climate change. METHODS: We used existing spatially-explicit global datasets to estimate the production levels of 41 major crops, seven livestock, and 14 aquaculture and fish products. From overall production estimates, we estimated the production of vitamin A, vitamin B12, folate, iron, zinc, calcium, calories, and protein. We also estimated the relative contribution of farms of different sizes to the production of different agricultural commodities and associated nutrients, as well as how the diversity of food production based on the number of different products grown per geographic pixel and distribution of products within this pixel (Shannon diversity index [H]) changes with different farm sizes. FINDINGS: Globally, small and medium farms (</=50 ha) produce 51-77% of nearly all commodities and nutrients examined here. However, important regional differences exist. Large farms (>50 ha) dominate production in North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand. In these regions, large farms contribute between 75% and 100% of all cereal, livestock, and fruit production, and the pattern is similar for other commodity groups. By contrast, small farms (</=20 ha) produce more than 75% of most food commodities in sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, south Asia, and China. In Europe, west Asia and north Africa, and central America, medium-size farms (20-50 ha) also contribute substantially to the production of most food commodities. Very small farms (</=2 ha) are important and have local significance in sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, and south Asia, where they contribute to about 30% of most food commodities. The majority of vegetables (81%), roots and tubers (72%), pulses (67%), fruits (66%), fish and livestock products (60%), and cereals (56%) are produced in diverse landscapes (H>1.5). Similarly, the majority of global micronutrients (53-81%) and protein (57%) are also produced in more diverse agricultural landscapes (H>1.5). By contrast, the majority of sugar (73%) and oil crops (57%) are produced in less diverse ones (H</=1.5), which also account for the majority of global calorie production (56%). The diversity of agricultural and nutrient production diminishes as farm size increases. However, areas of the world with higher agricultural diversity produce more nutrients, irrespective of farm size. INTERPRETATION: Our results show that farm size and diversity of agricultural production vary substantially across regions and are key structural determinants of food and nutrient production that need to be considered in plans to meet social, economic, and environmental targets. At the global level, both small and large farms have key roles in food and nutrition security. Efforts to maintain production diversity as farm sizes increase seem to be necessary to maintain the production of diverse nutrients and viable, multifunctional, sustainable landscapes. FUNDING: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, CGIAR Research Programs on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security and on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health funded by the CGIAR Fund Council, Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation, European Union, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Australian Research Council, National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and Joint Programming Initiative on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change-Belmont Forum.  
  Address International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2542-5196 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28670647 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 98017  
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Author Herrera-Ballesteros, V.H.; Zuniga, J.; Moreno, I.; Gomez, B.; Roa-Rodriguez, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title [Quitting smoking and willingness to pay for cessation in Panama] Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Salud Publica de Mexico Abbreviated Journal Salud Publica Mex  
  Volume 59Suppl 1 Issue Suppl 1 Pages 54-62  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract Objective:: To characterize the desire for cessation and willingness to pay for abandonment therapy. Materials and methods:: The data source is the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Cessation and willingness to pay were characterized by sociodemographic (SD) and socioeconomic (SE) variables. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate associations. Results:: A greater desire for cessation was observed in variables: women, education, non-governmental and inactive employees, rural areas, occasional smokers and middle income, and greater willingness to pay, in: education, over 60 years old, non-governmental, self-employed, urban area, occasional smokers and low median income. Conclusions:: There is a high relation between the desire for abandonment, and willingness to pay with SD and SE variables. Cessation therapies can be applied in work centers, and require a change of focus in the intervention.  
  Address Ministerio de Salud. Panama  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Spanish Summary Language Original Title Quienes quieren dejar fumar y su disposicion a pagar por cesacion en Panama  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-3634 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28658453 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 98019  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Brinkmann, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title “Fight the poisoners of the people!” The beginnings of food regulation in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, 1889-1930 Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Historia, Ciencias, Saude--Manguinhos Abbreviated Journal Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos  
  Volume 24 Issue 2 Pages 313-331  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract For urban Brazil, the First World War triggered a dramatic food crisis that brought with it a massive increase in falsified goods and led to an uproar among the general public. Critics targeted the health authorities, who were evidently unable to suppress these frauds. This text spans the First Republic period and shows that since its proclamation the issue of regulating the food trade was part of health policies, but implementation was repeatedly delayed because of other priorities. This situation only changed with the health reforms of the early 1920s, which allows us to identify the First World War food crisis as a decisive point for the Brazilian state to take responsibility in this area.  
  Address Professor, Instituto de Estudios Europeos/Departamento de Ciencia Politica y Relaciones Internacionale/Universidad del Norte. Km. 5 via Puerto Colombia. 080001 – Barranquilla – Colombia. sbrinkmann@uninorte.edu.co  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title “Guerra aos envenenadores do povo!” Os inicios da regulacao de alimentos em Sao Paulo e no Rio de Janeiro, 1889-1930  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0104-5970 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28658421 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 98020  
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Author Goetz, L.G.; Valeggia, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The ecology of anemia: Anemia prevalence and correlated factors in adult indigenous women in Argentina Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council Abbreviated Journal Am J Hum Biol  
  Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: The Toba/Qom of Namqom are an indigenous community native to the Gran Chaco region of northern Argentina. Historically seminomadic foragers, the diet of peri-urban community members has rapidly changed from high-protein, high-fiber to hypercaloric, processed. This study aims to understand the impact of this nutritional transition on aspects of women's health by exploring the relationship between prevalence of anemia and current diet composition, place of birth, and reproductive history. METHODS: We measured the capillary hemoglobin (Hb) levels of 153 adult women. Each participant was also given two interviews characterizing reproductive history and a 24-hour food recall. RESULTS: The average Hb level was 12.6 g/dL (range 5.8-15.7 g/dL). In our sample, 28% of participants were anemic and 31% were borderline anemic. Iron and vitamin C consumption were negatively associated with Hb levels. Body mass index was marginally associated with Hb levels. Being born in a peri-urban setting, a proxy for early Westernized diet was associated with higher risk of anemia, suggesting developmental experience may play a role. Pregnant and lactating women had lower Hb levels than menstruating and menopausal women. Age, height, parity, and age at first pregnancy were not found to be statistically significant predictors of anemia. CONCLUSIONS: Iron deficiency represents a serious health concern for women, particularly pregnant ones. Our results suggest that both past and current nutritional ecology variables may be associated with the risk of anemia. These findings inform public health interventions, since reproductive history may be more difficult to modify than current diet.  
  Address Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 05611  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1042-0533 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28101997 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 98030  
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Author Das, B.C.; Khan, A.S.; Elahi, N.E.; Uddin, M.S.; Debnath, B.C.; Khan, Z.R. url  openurl
  Title Morbidity and Mortality after Pancreatoduodenectomy: A Five Year Experience in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Mymensingh Medical Journal : MMJ Abbreviated Journal Mymensingh Med J  
  Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 145-153  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract Mortality and morbidity was assessed after adoption of a systematic care for patient with pancreatoduodenectomy starting from patient selection and preparation, operative technique, and postoperative care. In this prospective study seventy patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for periampullary carcinoma with curative intent between January 2010 and December 2014 were carefully analyzed prospectively. Patients were selected those who had ampullary carcinoma, lower bile duct carcinoma and small size carcinoma head of pancreas without local invasion and distant metastasis, and the patient who did not have any major disabling comorbid diseases. All patients were assessed uniformly before surgery and deficiency were corrected up to normal level before operation. Pancreatoduodenectomy and standard lymphadenectomy was performed meticulously with minimum blood loss. The pancreatojejunal reconstruction was performed using duct-to-mucosa method mostly. A nasojejunal feeding tube was placed in most patients for starting postoperative early oral feeding. Broad spectrum antibiotics and the epidural analgesia were mostly prescribed for good control infection and pain. Proper nutrition was maintained in calculative way through central venous line and nasojejunal feeding tube in the early postoperative period. General care, early mobilization and chest physiotherapy were given routinely in each patient. Seventy-seven percent (n=54) patients did not have any postoperative complications and they were discharged from hospital within 12-14 postoperative days. The morbidity occurred in 16 patients (23%) and most common complication was wound infection (18%, n=9). The rest complications were pancreatojejunal anastomotic leakage – 2, hepaticojejunal anastomosis leakage – 1, melaena – 1, intra-abdominal abscess – 1, intra-abdominal hemorrhage – 1, and renal dysfunction – 1. The mortality rate was 5.7% (n=4), causes of death were massive myocardial infarction; 1, failure of reversal from anesthesia; 1, massive intraabdominal bleeding; 1 and CV catheter related severe sepsis; 1. Review of recent published literature revealed that mortality and morbidity our series is better than low volume center and almost similar with high volume center of pancreatoduodenectomy surgery. Our systematic management policy of careful patient selection, planned approach in the form of proper work up, meticulous conduction of the procedure, appropriate postoperative care provides an acceptable morbidity and mortality after pancreatoduodenectomy.  
  Address Dr Bidhan C Das, Associate Professor, Division of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh; E-mail: dbidhan@yahoo.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1022-4742 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28260769 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 98727  
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