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Author Corvalan, C.; Garmendia, M.L.; Jones-Smith, J.; Lutter, C.K.; Miranda, J.J.; Pedraza, L.S.; Popkin, B.M.; Ramirez-Zea, M.; Salvo, D.; Stein, A.D.
Title Nutrition status of children in Latin America Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity Abbreviated Journal Obes Rev
Volume 18 Suppl 2 Issue Pages 7-18
Keywords Latin America; childhood obesity; children; nutrition and physical activity situation
Abstract The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence-based obesity prevention interventions.
Address Hubert Department of Global Health of the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1467-7881 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28741907 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97263
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Author Herrero, M.; Thornton, P.K.; Power, B.; Bogard, J.R.; Remans, R.; Fritz, S.; Gerber, J.S.; Nelson, G.; See, L.; Waha, K.; Watson, R.A.; West, P.C.; Samberg, L.H.; van de Steeg, J.; Stephenson, E.; van Wijk, M.; Havlik, P.
Title Farming and the geography of nutrient production for human use: a transdisciplinary analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication The Lancet. Planetary Health Abbreviated Journal Lancet Planet Health
Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages e33-e42
Keywords
Abstract BACKGROUND: Information about the global structure of agriculture and nutrient production and its diversity is essential to improve present understanding of national food production patterns, agricultural livelihoods, and food chains, and their linkages to land use and their associated ecosystems services. Here we provide a plausible breakdown of global agricultural and nutrient production by farm size, and also study the associations between farm size, agricultural diversity, and nutrient production. This analysis is crucial to design interventions that might be appropriately targeted to promote healthy diets and ecosystems in the face of population growth, urbanisation, and climate change. METHODS: We used existing spatially-explicit global datasets to estimate the production levels of 41 major crops, seven livestock, and 14 aquaculture and fish products. From overall production estimates, we estimated the production of vitamin A, vitamin B12, folate, iron, zinc, calcium, calories, and protein. We also estimated the relative contribution of farms of different sizes to the production of different agricultural commodities and associated nutrients, as well as how the diversity of food production based on the number of different products grown per geographic pixel and distribution of products within this pixel (Shannon diversity index [H]) changes with different farm sizes. FINDINGS: Globally, small and medium farms (</=50 ha) produce 51-77% of nearly all commodities and nutrients examined here. However, important regional differences exist. Large farms (>50 ha) dominate production in North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand. In these regions, large farms contribute between 75% and 100% of all cereal, livestock, and fruit production, and the pattern is similar for other commodity groups. By contrast, small farms (</=20 ha) produce more than 75% of most food commodities in sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, south Asia, and China. In Europe, west Asia and north Africa, and central America, medium-size farms (20-50 ha) also contribute substantially to the production of most food commodities. Very small farms (</=2 ha) are important and have local significance in sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, and south Asia, where they contribute to about 30% of most food commodities. The majority of vegetables (81%), roots and tubers (72%), pulses (67%), fruits (66%), fish and livestock products (60%), and cereals (56%) are produced in diverse landscapes (H>1.5). Similarly, the majority of global micronutrients (53-81%) and protein (57%) are also produced in more diverse agricultural landscapes (H>1.5). By contrast, the majority of sugar (73%) and oil crops (57%) are produced in less diverse ones (H</=1.5), which also account for the majority of global calorie production (56%). The diversity of agricultural and nutrient production diminishes as farm size increases. However, areas of the world with higher agricultural diversity produce more nutrients, irrespective of farm size. INTERPRETATION: Our results show that farm size and diversity of agricultural production vary substantially across regions and are key structural determinants of food and nutrient production that need to be considered in plans to meet social, economic, and environmental targets. At the global level, both small and large farms have key roles in food and nutrition security. Efforts to maintain production diversity as farm sizes increase seem to be necessary to maintain the production of diverse nutrients and viable, multifunctional, sustainable landscapes. FUNDING: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, CGIAR Research Programs on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security and on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health funded by the CGIAR Fund Council, Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation, European Union, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Australian Research Council, National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and Joint Programming Initiative on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change-Belmont Forum.
Address International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2542-5196 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28670647 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97264
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Author Ayash, C.; Costas-Muniz, R.; Badreddine, D.; Ramirez, J.; Gany, F.
Title An Investigation of Unmet Socio-Economic Needs Among Arab American Breast Cancer Patients Compared with Other Immigrant and Migrant Patients Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Community Health Abbreviated Journal J Community Health
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Arabs; Breast cancer; Immigrant health
Abstract Although Arabs are a growing population in the United States, they are a hidden minority when compared to larger, more studied groups like Latinos and Caribbean immigrants of African descent (CIAD). There is limited research pertaining to patients' unmet socioeconomic and supportive care needs when undergoing breast cancer treatment, particularly among immigrants and migrants. This is a comparative study of a nested cohort of 36 Arabs, 145 Latinos and 128 CIAD breast cancer patients participating in the Integrated Cancer Care Access Network and their areas of needed assistance. The patients were recruited from eleven community cancer clinics in New York City and through community based organizations. Patients most commonly reported needing financial, transportation, and food assistance. Arabs were more likely than their CIAD and Latino counterparts to have health insurance and legal aid needs. Arabs also has the highest proportion of patients unaware of their own cancer stage, at odds with their report of lower information needs than the other groups. Additional culturally tailored Arabic language interventions are needed to educate Arabic speaking breast cancer patients to help facilitate access to available services.
Address Arab Health Initiative, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities Service, 485 Lexington Avenue, 2nd floor, New York, NY, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0094-5145 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28669006 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97265
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Author Monge-Rojas, R.; Fuster-Baraona, T.; Garita-Arce, C.; Sanchez-Lopez, M.; Colon-Ramos, U.; Smith-Castro, V.
Title How Self-Objectification Impacts Physical Activity Among Adolescent Girls in Costa Rica Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Physical Activity & Health Abbreviated Journal J Phys Act Health
Volume 14 Issue 2 Pages 123-129
Keywords Adolescent; *Adolescent Behavior; Body Image/*psychology; Costa Rica; Cultural Characteristics; *Exercise; Female; Focus Groups; Humans; Male; Women's Health; Latin America; female identity; machismo; sexual harassment
Abstract BACKGROUND: In Latin America, more than 80% of adolescent girls are physically inactive. Inactivity may be reinforced by female stereotypes and objectification in the Latin American sociocultural context. METHODS: We examined the influence of objectification on the adoption of an active lifestyle among 192 adolescents (14 and 17 years old) from urban and rural areas in Costa Rica. Analyses of 48 focus-groups sessions were grounded in Objectification Theory. RESULTS: Vigorous exercises were gender-typed as masculine while girls had to maintain an aesthetic appearance at all times. Adolescents described how girls were anxious around the prospect of being shamed and sexually objectified during exercises. This contributed to a decrease in girls' desire to engage in physical activities. Among males, there is also a budding tolerance of female participation in vigorous sports, as long as girls maintained a feminine stereotype outside their participation. CONCLUSION: Self-objectification influenced Costa Rican adolescent girls' decisions to participate in physical activities. Interventions may include: procuring safe environments for physical activity where girls are protected from fear of ridicule and objectification; sensitizing boys about girl objectification and fostering the adoption of a modern positive masculine and female identities to encourage girls' participation in sports.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1543-3080 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27775480 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97269
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Author Sacks, E.; Freeman, P.A.; Sakyi, K.; Jennings, M.C.; Rassekh, B.M.; Gupta, S.; Perry, H.B.
Title Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 3. neonatal health findings Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Global Health Abbreviated Journal J Glob Health
Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 010903
Keywords
Abstract BACKGROUND: As the number of deaths among children younger than 5 years of age continues to decline globally through programs to address the health of older infants, neonatal mortality is becoming an increasingly large proportion of under-5 deaths. Lack of access to safe delivery care, emergency obstetric care and postnatal care continue to be challenges for reducing neonatal mortality. This article reviews the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) and common components of programs aiming to improve health during the first 28 days of life. METHODS: A database comprising evidence of the effectiveness of projects, programs and field research studies (referred to collectively as projects) in improving maternal, neonatal and child health through CBPHC has been assembled and described elsewhere in this series. From this larger database (N = 548), a subset was created from assessments specifically relating to newborn health (N = 93). Assessments were excluded if the primary project beneficiaries were more than 28 days of age, or if the assessment did not identify one of the following outcomes related to neonatal health: changes in knowledge about newborn illness, care seeking for newborn illness, utilization of postnatal care, nutritional status of neonates, neonatal morbidity, or neonatal mortality. Descriptive analyses were conducted based on study type and outcome variables. An equity assessment was also conducted on the articles included in the neonatal subset. RESULTS: There is strong evidence that CBPHC can be effective in improving neonatal health, and we present information about the common characteristics shared by effective programs. For projects that reported on health outcomes, twice as many reported an improvement in neonatal health as did those that reported no effect; only one study demonstrated a negative effect. Of those with the strongest experimental study design, almost three-quarters reported beneficial neonatal health outcomes. Many of the neonatal projects assessed in our database utilized community health workers (CHWs), home visits, and participatory women's groups. Several of the interventions used in these projects focused on health education (recognition of danger signs), and promotion of and support for exclusive breastfeeding (sometimes, but not always, including early breastfeeding). Almost all of the assessments that included a measurable equity component showed that CBPHC produced neonatal health benefits that favored the poorest segment of the project population. However, the studies were quite biased in geographic scope, with more than half conducted in South Asia, and many were pilot studies, rather than projects at scale. CONCLUSIONS: CBPHC can be effectively employed to improve neonatal health in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. CBPHC is especially important for education and support for pregnant and postpartum mothers and for establishing community-facility linkages to facilitate referrals for obstetrical emergencies; however, the latter will only produce better health outcomes if facilities offer timely, high-quality care. Further research on this topic is needed in Africa and Latin America, as well as in urban and peri-urban areas. Additionally, more assessments are needed of integrated packages of neonatal interventions and of programs at scale.
Address Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (down) English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2047-2978 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28685041 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97330
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