|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Corburn, J.; Sverdlik, A.
Title Slum Upgrading and Health Equity Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Africa; Asia; Climate Change; Employment; Environmental Health; *Health Equity; Housing; Humans; Latin America; *Poverty Areas; Socioeconomic Factors; Urban Health; Urban Population; climate change adaptation; health equity; health in all policies; housing; participation; slum upgrading; slums; social determinants of health; sustainable development goals
Abstract Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.
Address Department of City and Regional Planning & School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. sverdlik@berkeley.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (down) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28338613 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97184
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ross, I.; Mejia, C.; Melendez, J.; Chan, P.A.; Nunn, A.C.; Powderly, W.; Goodenberger, K.; Liu, J.; Mayer, K.H.; Patel, R.R.
Title Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages e0173057
Keywords Adult; Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use; *Attitude of Health Personnel; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Guatemala; HIV Infections/*prevention & control; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Physicians/psychology; Practice Patterns, Physicians'/*statistics & numerical data; Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/*statistics & numerical data; Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract INTRODUCTION: HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700) in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP. We sought to explore current PrEP awareness and prescribing attitudes among Guatemalan physicians in order to inform future PrEP implementation efforts. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult internal medicine physicians at the main teaching hospital in Guatemala City in March 2015. The survey included demographics, medical specialty, years of HIV patient care, PrEP awareness, willingness to prescribe PrEP, previous experience with post-exposure prophylaxis, and concerns about PrEP. The primary outcome was willingness to prescribe PrEP, which was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale for different at-risk population scenarios. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP. RESULTS: Eighty-seven physicians completed the survey; 66% were male, 64% were internal medicine residency trainees, and 10% were infectious disease (ID) specialists. Sixty-nine percent of physicians were PrEP aware, of which 9% had previously prescribed PrEP. Most (87%) of respondents were willing to prescribe PrEP to men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, injection drug users, or HIV-uninfected persons having known HIV-positive sexual partners. Concerns regarding PrEP included development of resistance (92%), risk compensation (90%), and cost (64%). Univariate logistic regression showed that younger age, being a resident trainee, and being a non-ID specialist were significant predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP. In multivariate logistic regression, being a non-ID specialist was a significant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Guatemalan physicians at an urban public hospital were PrEP aware and willing to prescribe, but few have actually done so yet. Future education programs should address the concerns identified, including the low potential for the development of antiretroviral resistance. These findings can aid PrEP implementation efforts in Guatemala.
Address Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (down) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28257475 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97185
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Del Brutto, O.H.; Mera, R.M.; Zambrano, M.; Del Brutto, V.J.
Title Severe edentulism is a major risk factor influencing stroke incidence in rural Ecuador (The Atahualpa Project) Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Stroke : Official Journal of the International Stroke Society Abbreviated Journal Int J Stroke
Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 201-204
Keywords Adult; Comorbidity; Ecuador/epidemiology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Hypertension/complications/epidemiology; Incidence; Male; Middle Aged; Mouth, Edentulous/complications/*epidemiology; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Rural Population; Severity of Illness Index; Stroke/complications/*epidemiology; Ecuador; Stroke incidence; cohort study; edentulism; stroke risk factors
Abstract Background There is no information on stroke incidence in rural areas of Latin America, where living conditions and cardiovascular risk factors are different from urban centers. Aim Using a population-based prospective cohort study design, we aimed to assess risk factors influencing stroke incidence in community-dwelling adults living in rural Ecuador. Methods First-ever strokes occurring from 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2016, in Atahualpa residents aged >/=40 years, were identified from yearly door-to-door surveys and other overlapping sources. Poisson regression models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, edentulism and the length of observation time per subject were used to estimate stroke incidence rate ratio as well as factors influencing such incidence. Results Of 807 stroke-free individuals prospectively enrolled in the Atahualpa Project, follow-up was achieved in 718 (89%), contributing 2,499 years of follow-up (average 3.48 +/- 0.95 years). Overall stroke incidence rate was 2.97 per 100 person-years of follow-up (95% CI: 1.73-4.2), which increased to 4.77 (95% CI: 1.61-14.1) when only persons aged >/=57 years were considered. Poisson regression models, adjusted for relevant confounders, showed that high blood pressure (IRR: 5.24; 95% CI: 2.55-7.93) and severe edentulism (IRR: 5.06; 95% CI: 2.28-7.85) were the factors independently increasing stroke incidence. Conclusions Stroke incidence in this rural setting is comparable to that reported from the developed world. Besides age and high blood pressure, severe edentulism is a major factor independently predicting incident strokes. Public awareness of the consequences of poor dental care might reduce stroke incidence in rural settings.
Address 4 Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (down) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1747-4930 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27777377 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97187
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Blot, S.; Bauer, G.; Fraser, M.; Nleya, M.; Wadham, M.
Title AIDS Service Organization Access Among African, Caribbean and Other Black Residents of an Average Canadian City Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health Abbreviated Journal J Immigr Minor Health
Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 851-860
Keywords African; Black people; Caribbean; Hiv/Aids; Health disparities; Health services research; Immigrant health; Minority health
Abstract Due to heightened vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, African, Caribbean and Black (ACB) communities are priority groups for prevention and intervention services in Canada. However, it is not clear which factors may affect ACB communities' access to these services. We evaluated access to the local AIDS service organization (ASO) in Middlesex-London by using data from the Black, African and Caribbean Canadian Health Study. Modified Poisson regression was used to obtain prevalence risk ratios for factors associated with three measures of access: familiarity with the ASO, willingness to access, and realized access. In adjusted analyses, older ACB community members were more likely to be familiar with the ASO, willing to access it, and have actually gone there. Canadian-born participants were less likely to have been to the ASO than recent immigrants. These results have implications for reaching specific segments of ACB communities for HIV/AIDS-related services in Canada.
Address Women and HIV/AIDS Initiative, Toronto, ON, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (down) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1557-1912 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26895153 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97194
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Godin, K.M.; Chacon, V.; Barnoya, J.; Leatherdale, S.T.
Title The school environment and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among Guatemalan adolescents Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Public Health Nutrition Abbreviated Journal Public Health Nutr
Volume 20 Issue 16 Pages 2980-2987
Keywords Latin America; Nutrition policy; School health; Sugar-sweetened beverages
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The current study sought to examine Guatemalan adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), identify which individual-level characteristics are associated with SSB consumption and describe school characteristics that may influence students' SSB consumption. DESIGN: Within this observational pilot study, a questionnaire was used to assess students' consumption of three varieties of SSB (soft drinks, energy drinks, sweetened coffees/teas), as well as a variety of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics. We collected built environment data to examine aspects of the school food environment. We developed Poisson regression models for each SSB variety and used descriptive analyses to characterize the sample. SETTING: Guatemala City, Guatemala. SUBJECTS: Guatemalan adolescents (n 1042) from four (two public, two private) secondary schools. RESULTS: Built environment data revealed that students from the two public schools lacked access to water fountains/coolers. The SSB industry had a presence in the schools through advertisements, sponsored food kiosks and products available for sale. Common correlates of SSB consumption included school type, sedentary behaviour, frequency of purchasing lunch in the cafeteria, and frequency of purchasing snacks from vending machines in school and off school property. CONCLUSIONS: Guatemalan adolescents frequently consume SSB, which may be encouraged by aspects of the school environment. Schools represent a viable setting for equitable population health interventions designed to reduce SSB consumption, including increasing access to clean drinking-water, reducing access to SSB, restricting SSB marketing and greater enforcement of existing food policies.
Address 1School of Public Health and Health Systems,University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West,Waterloo,ON,Canada,N2L 3G1
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (down) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1368-9800 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28803573 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97261
Permanent link to this record