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Author Zapotoczna, M.; Forde, E.; Hogan, S.; Humphreys, H.; O'Gara, J.P.; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D.; Devocelle, M.; O'Neill, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Infections Using Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Journal of Infectious Diseases Abbreviated Journal J Infect Dis  
  Volume 215 Issue 6 Pages 975-983  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Biofilms/*drug effects; Catheter-Related Infections/*drug therapy; Cytokines/blood; Disease Models, Animal; Humans; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/*drug effects; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Peptides/*pharmacology; Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Staphylococcal Infections/*drug therapy; Vancomycin/administration & dosage; *Staphylococcus aureus; *antimicrobial peptides (AMPs); *biofilm; *catheter lock solution (CLS)  
  Abstract Here, we demonstrate that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an effective antibiofilm treatment when applied as catheter lock solutions (CLSs) against S. aureus biofilm infections. The activity of synthetic AMPs (Bac8c, HB43, P18, Omiganan, WMR, Ranalexin, and Polyphemusin) was measured against early and mature biofilms produced by methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates from patients with device-related infections grown under in vivo-relevant biofilm conditions. The cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of the AMPs against human cells and their immunomodulatory potential in human blood were also characterized. The D-Bac8c2,5Leu variant emerged as the most effective AMP during in vitro studies and was also highly effective in eradicating S. aureus biofilm infection when used in a CLS rat central venous catheter infection model. These data support the potential use of D-Bac8c2,5Leu, alone or in combination with other AMPs, in the treatment of S. aureus intravenous catheter infections.  
  Address Department of Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-1899 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28453851 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial (down) 100541  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Yu, W.-L.; Lee, M.-F.; Chen, C.-C.; Tang, H.-J.; Ho, C.-H.; Chuang, Y.-C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impacts of Hypervirulence Determinants on Clinical Features and Outcomes of Bacteremia Caused by Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Microbial Drug Resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Microb Drug Resist  
  Volume 23 Issue 3 Pages 376-383  
  Keywords Aged; Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use; Bacteremia/drug therapy/*microbiology; Bacterial Proteins/genetics; Cross Infection/drug therapy/microbiology; Female; Hospital Mortality; Humans; Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy/*microbiology; Klebsiella pneumoniae/*genetics; Male; Middle Aged; Serogroup; Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy/microbiology; Virulence Factors/*genetics; beta-Lactamases/*genetics; Esbl; Klebsiella pneumoniae; hypermucoviscosity; hypervirulence; rmpA; virulence  
  Abstract We investigated the implications of hypervirulence determinants on clinical features of 48 adult patients with bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolates in the hypervirulence group included any of the following virulence determinants: K1/K2 capsule serotypes, hypermucoviscosity phenotype, rmpA gene, or rmpA2 gene. Nonhypervirulence group isolates were negative for all of the above virulence factors. In this study, all isolates used were non-K1/K2 strains. Statistically significant differences were observed in clinical features of patients between the two groups. The hypervirulent isolates (n = 19), including 11 isolates with the hypermucoviscosity phenotype, 15 with the rmpA gene, and 16 with the rmpA2 gene, were more commonly recovered from diabetic patients and mainly manifested as secondary bacteremia (such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, or other localized infections). The nonhypervirulent isolates (n = 29) were more commonly recovered from patients after prolonged hospital stays (>30 days) and mostly manifested as primary bacteremia. The overall in-hospital mortality was 56.3%. Hazard ratio (HR) analysis revealed the following positive predictors for mortality: nosocomial infection, stay in an intensive care unit, no removal of the central venous catheter, Charlson comorbidity score, and APACHE II score (>==15). The negative predictors were initial appropriate antibiotic therapy (HR 0.42) and urinary tract infection (HR 0.19). Charlson score was an independent confounder based on multivariate analysis (HR 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.99). In conclusion, hypervirulence determinants played a role in causing secondary infections in diabetic patients; however, the presence of morbidity cofactors could themselves influence mortality, despite the absence of hypervirulence determinants.  
  Address 6 Department of Internal Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center-Liou Ying , Tainan City, Taiwan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1076-6294 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27380450 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial (down) 100535  
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Author Shibata, W.; Sohara, M.; Wu, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Yagi, S.; Yaguchi, K.; Iizuka, Y.; Iwasa, M.; Nakahata, H.; Yamaguchi, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Okada, M.; Taniguchi, K.; Hayashi, A.; Inazawa, S.; Inagaki, N.; Sasaki, T.; Koh, R.; Kinoshita, H.; Nishio, M.; Ogashiwa, T.; Ookawara, A.; Miyajima, E.; Oba, M.; Ohge, H.; Maeda, S.; Kimura, H.; Kunisaki, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Incidence and Outcomes of Central Venous Catheter-related Blood Stream Infection in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Routine Clinical Practice Setting Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Abbreviated Journal Inflamm Bowel Dis  
  Volume 23 Issue 11 Pages 2042-2047  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) occasionally require central venous catheter (CVC) placement to support a therapeutic plan. Given that CVC can predispose patients to infection, this investigation was undertaken to assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CVC-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) in patients with IBD during routine clinical practice. METHODS: Data were compiled using retrospective chart reviews of 1367 patients treated at our IBD center between 2007 and 2012 during routine clinical practice. Among the 1367 patients, 314 who had received CVC placements were included. Patients with positive blood culture were considered as “definite” CRBSI, whereas “possible” CRBSI was defined as patients in whom fever alleviated within 48 hours post-CVC without any other infection. Patients' demographic variables including age, body mass index, serum albumin, duration of CVC placement, use of antibiotics, medications for IBD, and perioperative status between CRBSI and non-CRBSI subgroups were compared by applying a multivariate Poisson logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among the 314 patients with CVC placement, there were 83 CRBSI cases (26.4%). The average time to the onset of CRBSI was 22.5 days (range 4-105 days). The jugular vein access was found to be the most serious risk of CRBSI (risk ratio 2.041 versus subclavian vein). All patients with CRBSI fully recovered. CONCLUSIONS: In this investigation, regardless of the patients' demographic features including immunosuppressive therapy, up to 30% of febrile IBD patients with CVC showed CRBSI. It is believed that CVC placement per se is a risk of CRBSI in patients with IBD.  
  Address *Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Centre, Yokohama, Japan;daggerDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan;double daggerSchool of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan; section signDepartment of Laboratory Medicine and Clinical Investigation, Yokohama City University Medical Centre, Yokohama, Japan; ||Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan; and paragraph signDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Hiroshima University Hospital, Japan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1078-0998 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29045261 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial (down) 100389  
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Author Saleh, H.M.; Tawfik, M.M.; Abouellail, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Prospective, randomized study of long-term hemodialysis catheter removal versus guidewire exchange to treat catheter-related bloodstream infection Type Randomized Controlled Trial
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Vascular Surgery Abbreviated Journal J Vasc Surg  
  Volume 66 Issue 5 Pages 1427-1431.e1  
  Keywords Aged; Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use; Catheter-Related Infections/blood/diagnosis/microbiology/*therapy; Catheterization, Central Venous/*adverse effects/*instrumentation; Catheters, Indwelling/*adverse effects; Central Venous Catheters/*adverse effects; *Device Removal/adverse effects; Disease-Free Survival; Egypt; Equipment Design; Female; Humans; Kaplan-Meier Estimate; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Renal Dialysis; Risk Factors; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Long-term (tunneled cuffed) hemodialysis catheters are frequently used vascular access in renal failure patients. Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a common complication of long-term hemodialysis catheters, with severe morbidities and high risk of mortality. Management of CRBSI by systemic antibiotics while keeping the catheter in place is not effective. Among the different modalities of CRBSI management are catheter removal (CR) and guidewire exchange (GE) of the catheter. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of CRBSI treated with two different strategies: GE vs CR with new catheter insertion 3 to 7 days later. METHODS: This prospective randomized study analyzed the outcomes of all cases of long-term hemodialysis CRBSI during a 5-year period. The catheter infection-free survival time was analyzed in the two groups of patients (GE group, 339 patients; CR group, 339 patients). Three weeks of systemic antibiotic therapy was used according to culture in both groups. The catheter infection-free survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found in catheter infection-free survival time for GE and CR groups (P = .69), which is not affected by age, sex, presence of diabetes mellitus, or type of causative organism. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not demonstrate a difference in the clinical outcome of CRBSI treated with GE or CR with new catheter insertion 3 to 7 days later. However, guidewire catheter exchange saves veins for future access, reduces the cost and number of procedures, and avoids complications of new venipuncture.  
  Address Department of Nephrology, Ain Shams University, El Demerdash Hospital, Cairo, Egypt  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0741-5214 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28822660 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial (down) 100347  
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Author Rogers, A.E.J.; Eisenman, K.M.; Dolan, S.A.; Belderson, K.M.; Zauche, J.R.; Tong, S.; Gralla, J.; Hilden, J.M.; Wang, M.; Maloney, K.W.; Dominguez, S.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Risk factors for bacteremia and central line-associated blood stream infections in children with acute myelogenous leukemia: A single-institution report Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Pediatric Blood & Cancer Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Blood Cancer  
  Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords Adolescent; Bacteremia/*etiology; Bacteria/isolation & purification; Case-Control Studies; Catheter-Related Infections/*etiology; Catheterization, Central Venous/*adverse effects; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross Infection/*etiology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Infant; Intensive Care Units, Pediatric; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/*complications/microbiology; Male; Prognosis; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Clabsi; acute myelogenous leukemia; bacteremia; pediatric oncology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) are a source of high morbidity and mortality in children with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). PROCEDURE: To understand the epidemiology and risk factors associated with the development of CLABSI in children with AML. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with AML over a 5-year period between 2007 and 2011 at the Children's Hospital Colorado. Cases and controls were classified on the basis of the presence of a CLABSI as defined by the National Healthcare Safety Network. RESULTS: Of 40 patients in the study, 25 (62.5%) developed at least one CLABSI during therapy. The majority of CLABSIs were due to oral or gastrointestinal organisms (83.0%). Skin organisms accounted for 8.5%. In a multivariable analysis, the strongest risk factors associated with CLABSI were diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] 6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-28.7), receipt of blood products in the preceding 4-7 days (OR 10.0, 95%CI 3.2-31.0), not receiving antibiotics (OR 8.3, 95%CI 2.8-25.0), and chemotherapy cycle (OR 3.5, 95%CI 1.4-8.9). CLABSIs led to increased morbidity, with 13 cases (32.5%) versus two controls (1.9%) requiring transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit (P < 0.001). Three (7.5%) of 40 CLABSI events resulted in or contributed to death. CONCLUSIONS: Intensified line care efforts cannot eliminate all CLABSIs in the patients with AML. Exploring the role of mucosal barrier breakdown and/or the use of antibiotic prophylaxis may be effective strategies for further prevention of CLABSIs, supporting ongoing trials in this patient population.  
  Address Department of Infectious Disease, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1545-5009 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27616655 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial (down) 100321  
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