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Author Li, M.; Zhao, H.; Ananiev, G.E.; Musser, M.T.; Ness, K.H.; Maglaque, D.L.; Saha, K.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Zhao, X.
Title Establishment of Reporter Lines for Detecting Fragile X Mental Retardation (FMR1) Gene Reactivation in Human Neural Cells Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio) Abbreviated Journal Stem Cells
Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 158-169
Keywords Drug discovery; Fmr1; Fmrp; Fragile X syndrome; High throughput; Induced pluripotent stem cells; Luciferase
Abstract Human patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide unique opportunities for disease modeling and drug development. However, adapting hiPSCs or their differentiated progenies to high throughput assays for phenotyping or drug screening has been challenging. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and a major genetic cause of autism. FXS is caused by mutational trinucleotide expansion in the FMR1 gene leading to hypermethylation and gene silencing. One potential therapeutic strategy is to reactivate the silenced FMR1 gene, which has been attempted using both candidate chemicals and cell-based screening. However, molecules that effectively reactivate the silenced FMR1 gene are yet to be identified; therefore, a high throughput unbiased screen is needed. Here we demonstrate the creation of a robust FMR1-Nluc reporter hiPSC line by knocking in a Nano luciferase (Nluc) gene into the endogenous human FMR1 gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method. We confirmed that luciferase activities faithfully report FMR1 gene expression levels and showed that neural progenitor cells derived from this line could be optimized for high throughput screening. The FMR1-Nluc reporter line is a good resource for drug screening as well as for testing potential genetic reactivation strategies. In addition, our data provide valuable information for the generation of knockin human iPSC reporter lines for disease modeling, drug screening, and mechanistic studies. Stem Cells 2017;35:158-169.
Address Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue (up) Edition
ISSN 1066-5099 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27422057 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 95937
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Author Fogel, O.; Richard-Miceli, C.; Tost, J.
Title Epigenetic Changes in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol
Volume 106 Issue Pages 139-189
Keywords Behcet's disease; Crohn's disease; DNA methylation; Ewas; Epigenetics; Histone modifications; Inflammatory bowel disease; Psoriasis; Spondyloarthritis; Ulcerative colitis
Abstract The number of people diagnosed with chronic inflammatory diseases has increased noteworthy in the last 40 years. Spondyloarthritis (SpA), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and psoriasis are the most frequent chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small and long noncoding RNAs. They are influenced by environmental exposure, life-style, and aging and have recently been shown to be altered in many complex diseases including inflammatory diseases. While epigenetic modifications have been well characterized in other diseases such as cancer and autoimmune diseases, knowledge on changes in inflammatory diseases is lagging behind with some disease-specific differences. While the DNA methylation profile of different cell types in patients with IBD has been relatively well described, less is known on changes implicated in psoriasis, and no systematic genome-wide studies have so far been performed in SpA. In this chapter, we review in detail the reported changes in patterns of DNA methylation and posttranslational histone modifications in chronic inflammatory diseases highlighting potential connections between disease-associated pathophysiological changes such as the dysbiosis of the microbiome or genetic variations associated with disease susceptibility and the epigenome. We also discuss important parameters of meaningful epigenetic studies such as the use of well defined, disease-relevant cell populations, and elude on the potential future of engineering of the epigenome in inflammatory diseases.
Address Laboratory for Epigenetics and Environment, Centre National de Genotypage, CEA-Institut de Genomique, Evry, France. Electronic address: tost@cng.fr
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue (up) Edition
ISSN 1876-1623 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28057210 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96374
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Author Tahara, T.; Hirata, I.; Nakano, N.; Nagasaka, M.; Nakagawa, Y.; Shibata, T.; Ohmiya, N.
Title Comprehensive DNA Methylation Profiling of Inflammatory Mucosa in Ulcerative Colitis Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Abbreviated Journal Inflamm Bowel Dis
Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 165-173
Keywords
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aberrant DNA methylation frequently occurs in the inflammatory mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) and is involved in UC-related tumorigenesis. We performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of the promoter regions of the inflamed rectal mucosae of patients with UC. DESIGN: The methylation status of the promoter CpG islands (CGIs) of 45 cancer/inflammation or age-related candidate genes and the LINE1 repetitive element were examined in the colonic mucosae of 84 cancer-free patients with UC by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Methylation status of selected genes (DPYS, N33, MIR1247, GSTP1, and SOX11) was also determined in 14 neoplastic lesions (5 with high-grade dysplasia and 9 with carcinoma) and 8 adjacent tissues derived from 12 patients. An Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array was used to characterize the methylation status of >450,000 CpG sites for 10 patients with UC. RESULTS: Clustering analysis based on the methylation status of the candidate genes clearly distinguished the inflammatory samples from the noninflammatory samples. The hypermethylation of the promoter CGIs strongly correlated with increased disease duration, which is a known risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Genome-wide methylation analyses revealed a high rate of hypermethylation in the severe phenotype of UC, particularly at the CGIs. Exclusively hypermethylated promoter CGIs in the severe phenotypes were significantly related to genes involved in biosynthetic processes, the regulation of metabolic processes, and nitrogen compound metabolic processes. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the potential utility of DNA methylation as a molecular marker and therapeutic target for UC-related tumorigenesis.
Address *Department of Gastroenterology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; and daggerDepartment of Gastroenterology, Tanimukai Hospital Japan, Nishinomiya, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue (up) Edition
ISSN 1078-0998 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27930411 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96375
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Author Heffernan, J.M.; McNamara, J.B.; Borwege, S.; Vernon, B.L.; Sanai, N.; Mehta, S.; Sirianni, R.W.
Title PNIPAAm-co-Jeffamine(R) (PNJ) scaffolds as in vitro models for niche enrichment of glioblastoma stem-like cells Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Biomaterials Abbreviated Journal Biomaterials
Volume 143 Issue Pages 149-158
Keywords Brain tumor initiating cells; Cancer stem cells; Radioresistance; Temperature responsive polymer scaffolds; Tissue engineering
Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor, and the 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. GBM malignancy is driven in part by a population of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) that exhibit indefinite self-renewal capacity, multipotent differentiation, expression of neural stem cell markers, and resistance to conventional treatments. GSCs are enriched in specialized niche microenvironments that regulate stem phenotypes and support GSC radioresistance. Therefore, identifying GSC-niche interactions that regulate stem phenotypes may present a unique target for disrupting the maintenance and persistence of this treatment resistant population. In this work, we engineered 3D scaffolds from temperature responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Jeffamine M-1000(R) acrylamide), or PNJ copolymers, as a platform for enriching stem-specific phenotypes in two molecularly distinct human patient-derived GSC cell lines. Notably, we observed that, compared to conventional neurosphere cultures, PNJ cultured GSCs maintained multipotency and exhibited enhanced self-renewal capacity. Concurrent increases in expression of proteins known to regulate self-renewal, invasion, and stem maintenance in GSCs (NESTIN, EGFR, CD44) suggest that PNJ scaffolds effectively enrich the GSC population. We further observed that PNJ cultured GSCs exhibited increased resistance to radiation treatment compared to GSCs cultured in standard neurosphere conditions. GSC radioresistance is supported in vivo by niche microenvironments, and this remains a significant barrier to effectively treating these highly tumorigenic cells. Taken in sum, these data indicate that the microenvironment created by synthetic PNJ scaffolds models niche enrichment of GSCs in patient-derived GBM cell lines, and presents tissue engineering opportunities for studying clinically important behaviors such as radioresistance in vitro.
Address Barrow Brain Tumor Research Center, Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 W Thomas Ave, Phoenix, AZ, 85013, USA; School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, PO Box 879709, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA. Electronic address: rachael.sirianni@dignityhealth.org
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue (up) Edition
ISSN 0142-9612 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28802102 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96570
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Author Klumpp, L.; Sezgin, E.C.; Skardelly, M.; Eckert, F.; Huber, S.M.
Title KCa3.1 channels and glioblastoma: in vitro studies Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Current Neuropharmacology Abbreviated Journal Curr Neuropharmacol
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords γH2AX foci; Aldh1a3; Gbm; GSCs; IKCa; Kcnn4; Sk4; radioresistance
Abstract Several tumor entities including brain tumors aberrantly overexpress intermediate conductance Ca2+ activated KCa3.1 K+ channels. These channels contribute significantly to the transformed phenotype of the tumor cells. By modulating membrane potential, cell volume, Ca2+ signals and the respiration chain, KCa3.1 channels in both, plasma and inner mitochondrial membrane, have been demonstrated to regulate many cellular processes such as migration and tissue invasion, metastasis, cell cycle progression, oxygen consumption and metabolism, DNA damage response and cell death of cancer cells. Moreover, KCa3.1 channels have been shown to crucially contribute to resistance against radiotherapy suggesting KCa3.1 channels as promising new targets of future anti-cancer therapies. The present article summarizes our current knowledge of the molecular signaling upstream and downstream and the effector functions of KCa3.1 channel activity in tumor cells in general and in glioblastoma cells in particular. In addition, it presents original in vitro data on KCa3.1 channel expression in subtypes of glioblastoma stem(-like) cells proposing KCa3.1 as marker for the mesenchymal subgroup of cancer stem cells. Moreover, the data suggest that KCa3.1 contributes to the therapy resistance of mesenchymal glioblastoma stem cells.
Address Department of Radiation Oncology University of Tubingen Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3 72076 Tubingen. Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue (up) Edition
ISSN 1570-159X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28786347 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96571
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