toggle visibility Search & Display Options

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author Miguel, M.G.; Barreto, R.P.; Pereira, S.Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Study of a tropical soil in order to use it to retain aluminum, iron, manganese and fluoride from acid mine drainage Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage  
  Volume 204 Issue Pt 1 Pages 563-570  
  Keywords Acid mine drainage; Column test; Contaminant transport; Liner; Tropical soils; Waste rock pile  
  Abstract The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM-Caldas), in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, nowadays in decommissioning stage, was the first uranium extraction mine in Brazil. Several negative environmental impacts in the area have occurred, because of mining, treatment and beneficiation processes. Waste rock pile 4 (WRP-4) generates acid mine drainage (AMD), which is discharged in the Nestor Figueiredo retention pond (NFP). However, leakage of acid water by the NFP dam foundation has been constantly observed. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate a typical tropical soil, in order to use it as mineral liner for the NFP to minimize the leakage of acid water through the dam foundation and to retain predominant chemical species. Geotechnical, chemical and mineralogical tests were performed to characterize the soil and a column test was carried out using the acid mine drainage as contaminant, which contained aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and fluoride (F-). The soil presented micro aggregation, acid pH, and low values of organic matter content and cation exchange capacity, which are characteristics of highly weathered soils. Diffusion was the predominant transport mechanism in the column test. Effluent solutions with pH less than 6.0 indicated the formation of insoluble Al-F complexes in the soil and desorption of iron and manganese at concentrations above those allowed by the Brazilian legislation. At pH greater than 6.0, the desorption of iron and manganese and release of aluminum and fluoride in the free form occurred, with concentrations also higher than the allowed by the Brazilian legislation.  
  Address Institute of Geoscience, University of Campinas (Unicamp), Brazil  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28942188 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97504  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Saunders, M.J.; Wingfield, T.; Tovar, M.A.; Baldwin, M.R.; Datta, S.; Zevallos, K.; Montoya, R.; Valencia, T.R.; Friedland, J.S.; Moulton, L.H.; Gilman, R.H.; Evans, C.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A score to predict and stratify risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases: a prospective derivation and external validation cohort study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Lancet. Infectious Diseases Abbreviated Journal Lancet Infect Dis  
  Volume 17 Issue 11 Pages 1190-1199  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Contacts of tuberculosis index cases are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Screening, preventive therapy, and surveillance for tuberculosis are underused interventions in contacts, particularly adults. We developed a score to predict risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases. METHODS: In 2002-06, we recruited contacts aged 15 years or older of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis who lived in desert shanty towns in Ventanilla, Peru. We followed up contacts for tuberculosis until February, 2016. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to identify index case, contact, and household risk factors for tuberculosis from which to derive a score and classify contacts as low, medium, or high risk. We validated the score in an urban community recruited in Callao, Peru, in 2014-15. FINDINGS: In the derivation cohort, we identified 2017 contacts of 715 index cases, and median follow-up was 10.7 years (IQR 9.5-11.8). 178 (9%) of 2017 contacts developed tuberculosis during 19 147 person-years of follow-up (incidence 0.93 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 0.80-1.08). Risk factors for tuberculosis were body-mass index, previous tuberculosis, age, sustained exposure to the index case, the index case being in a male patient, lower community household socioeconomic position, indoor air pollution, previous tuberculosis among household members, and living in a household with a low number of windows per room. The 10-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 2.8% (95% CI 1.7-4.4), 6.2% (4.8-8.1), and 20.6% (17.3-24.4). The 535 (27%) contacts classified as high risk accounted for 60% of the tuberculosis identified during follow-up. The score predicted tuberculosis independently of tuberculin skin test and index-case drug sensitivity results. In the external validation cohort, 65 (3%) of 1910 contacts developed tuberculosis during 3771 person-years of follow-up (incidence 1.7 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 1.4-2.2). The 2.5-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 1.4% (95% CI 0.7-2.8), 3.9% (2.5-5.9), and 8.6%. (5.9-12.6). INTERPRETATION: Our externally validated risk score could predict and stratify 10-year risk of developing tuberculosis in adult contacts, and could be used to prioritise tuberculosis control interventions for people most likely to benefit. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development Civil Society Challenge Fund, Joint Global Health Trials consortium, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Imperial College National Institutes of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Sir Halley Stewart Trust, WHO, TB REACH, and Innovation for Health and Development.  
  Address Section of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Imperial College London, London, UK; Wellcome Trust Imperial College Centre for Global Health Research, London, UK; Innovation for Health and Development (IFHAD), Laboratory of Research and Development, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Innovacion Por la Salud Y Desarrollo (IPSYD), Asociacion Benefica PRISMA, Lima, Peru  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1473-3099 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28827142 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97505  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Godin, K.M.; Chacon, V.; Barnoya, J.; Leatherdale, S.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The school environment and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among Guatemalan adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Public Health Nutrition Abbreviated Journal Public Health Nutr  
  Volume 20 Issue 16 Pages 2980-2987  
  Keywords Latin America; Nutrition policy; School health; Sugar-sweetened beverages  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The current study sought to examine Guatemalan adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), identify which individual-level characteristics are associated with SSB consumption and describe school characteristics that may influence students' SSB consumption. DESIGN: Within this observational pilot study, a questionnaire was used to assess students' consumption of three varieties of SSB (soft drinks, energy drinks, sweetened coffees/teas), as well as a variety of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics. We collected built environment data to examine aspects of the school food environment. We developed Poisson regression models for each SSB variety and used descriptive analyses to characterize the sample. SETTING: Guatemala City, Guatemala. SUBJECTS: Guatemalan adolescents (n 1042) from four (two public, two private) secondary schools. RESULTS: Built environment data revealed that students from the two public schools lacked access to water fountains/coolers. The SSB industry had a presence in the schools through advertisements, sponsored food kiosks and products available for sale. Common correlates of SSB consumption included school type, sedentary behaviour, frequency of purchasing lunch in the cafeteria, and frequency of purchasing snacks from vending machines in school and off school property. CONCLUSIONS: Guatemalan adolescents frequently consume SSB, which may be encouraged by aspects of the school environment. Schools represent a viable setting for equitable population health interventions designed to reduce SSB consumption, including increasing access to clean drinking-water, reducing access to SSB, restricting SSB marketing and greater enforcement of existing food policies.  
  Address 1School of Public Health and Health Systems,University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West,Waterloo,ON,Canada,N2L 3G1  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1368-9800 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28803573 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97506  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Corvalan, C.; Garmendia, M.L.; Jones-Smith, J.; Lutter, C.K.; Miranda, J.J.; Pedraza, L.S.; Popkin, B.M.; Ramirez-Zea, M.; Salvo, D.; Stein, A.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nutrition status of children in Latin America Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity Abbreviated Journal Obes Rev  
  Volume 18 Suppl 2 Issue Pages 7-18  
  Keywords Latin America; childhood obesity; children; nutrition and physical activity situation  
  Abstract The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence-based obesity prevention interventions.  
  Address Hubert Department of Global Health of the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1467-7881 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28741907 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97507  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Perez-Martinez, P.J.; de Fatima Andrade, M.; de Miranda, R.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Heavy truck restrictions and air quality implications in Sao Paulo, Brazil Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage  
  Volume 202 Issue Pt 1 Pages 55-68  
  Keywords Air pollution trends; Sao Paulo; Traffic-pollutant relationships; Transport emission factors  
  Abstract This study quantified the effects of traffic restrictions on diesel fuel heavy vehicles (HVs) on the air quality of the Bandeirantes corridor using hourly data obtained by continuous monitoring of traffic and air quality at sites located on this avenue. The study addressed the air quality of a city impacted by vehicular emissions and that PM10 and NOX concentrations are mainly due to diesel burning. Data collection was split into two time periods, a period of no traffic constraint on HVs (Nov 2008 and 2009) and a period of constraint (Nov 2010, 2011 and 2012). We found that pollutants on this corridor, mainly PM10 and NOX, decreased significantly during the period from 2008 to 2012 (28 and 43%, 15.8 and 86.9 ppb) as a direct consequence of HV traffic restrictions (a 72% reduction). Rebound effects in the form of increased traffic of light vehicles (LVs) during this time had impacts on the concentration levels, explaining the differences between rates of reduction in HV traffic and pollutants. Reductions in the number of trucks resulted in longer travel times and increased traffic congestion as a consequence of the modal shift towards LVs. We found that a 51% decrease in PM10 (28.8 mug m-3) was due to a reduction in HV traffic (vehicle emissions were estimated to be 71% of total sources, 40.1 mug m-3). This percentage was partially offset by 10% more PM10 emissions related to an increase in LV traffic, while other causes, such as climatic conditions, contributed to a 13% increase in PM10 concentrations. The relationships analyzed in this research served to highlight the need to apply urban transport policies aimed at decreasing pollutant concentrations in Sao Paulo, especially in heavily congested urban corridors on working days.  
  Address School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, Brazil  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title (up) Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28719822 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97508  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations:
Export Records: