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Author Firmansyah, I.; Spiller, M.; de Ruijter, F.J.; Carsjens, G.J.; Zeeman, G.
Title (up) Assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus flows in agricultural and urban systems in a small island under limited data availability Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 574 Issue Pages 1521-1532
Keywords Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Small island system; Substance Flow Analysis (SFA); Urban metabolism; Urban-agriculture
Abstract Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two essential macronutrients required in agricultural production. The major share of this production relies on chemical fertilizer that requires energy and relies on limited resources (P). Since these nutrients are lost to the environment, there is a need to shift from this linear urban metabolism to a circular metabolism in which N and P from domestic waste and wastewater are reused in agriculture. A first step to facilitate a transition to more circular urban N and P management is to understand the flows of these resources in a coupled urban-agricultural system. For the first time this paper presents a Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) approach for the assessment of the coupled agricultural and urban systems under limited data availability in a small island. The developed SFA approach is used to identify intervention points that can provide N and P stocks for agricultural production. The island of St. Eustatius, a small island in the Caribbean, was used as a case study. The model developed in this study consists of eight sub-systems: agricultural and natural lands, urban lands, crop production, animal production, market, household consumption, soakage pit and open-dump landfill. A total of 26 flows were identified and quantified for a period of one year (2013). The results showed that the agricultural system is a significant source for N and P loss because of erosion/run-off and leaching. Moreover, urban sanitation systems contribute to deterioration of the island's ecosystem through N and P losses from domestic waste and wastewater by leaching and atmospheric emission. Proposed interventions are the treatment of blackwater and greywater for the recovery of N and P. In conclusion, this study allows for identification of potential N and P losses and proposes mitigation measures to improve nutrient management in a small island context.
Address Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen UR, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27613673 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97517
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Author Leite, F.H.M.; de Carvalho Cremm, E.; de Abreu, D.S.C.; Oliveira, M.A. de; Budd, N.; Martins, P.A.
Title (up) Association of neighbourhood food availability with the consumption of processed and ultra-processed food products by children in a city of Brazil: a multilevel analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Public Health Nutrition Abbreviated Journal Public Health Nutr
Volume Issue Pages 1-12
Keywords Children; Food consumption; Food environment; Neighbourhood; Ultra-processed food products
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between neighbourhood food availability and the consumption of ready-to-consume products (RCP), either processed or ultra-processed, and unprocessed/minimally processed foods (UF-MPF) by children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. 24 h Dietary recalls were collected from children from January 2010 to June 2011. Neighbourhood food availability data were collected from 672 food stores located within 500 m of participants' homes, using an adapted and validated instrument. Neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) was obtained by calculating the mean years of household head's education level in each census tract covered by 500 m buffers. Foods that were consumed by children and/or available in the food stores were classified based on their degree of industrial processing. Multilevel random-effect models examined the association between neighbourhood food availability and children's diets. SETTING: Santos, Brazil. SUBJECTS: Children (n 513) under 10 years old (292 aged <6 years, 221 aged >/=6 years). RESULTS: The availability of RCP in food stores was associated with increased RCP consumption (P<0.001) and decreased UF-MPF consumption (P<0.001). The consumption of UF-MPF was positively associated with neighbourhood-level SES (P<0.01), but not with the availability of UF-MPF in the neighbourhood. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that food policies and interventions that aim to reduce RCP consumption in Santos and similar settings should focus on reducing the availability in food stores. The results also suggest that interventions should not only increase the availability of UF-MPF in lower-SES neighbourhoods, but should strive to make UF-MPF accessible within these environments.
Address 1Department of Human Movement Science,Nutritional Epidemiology Laboratory,Federal University of Sao Paulo,95 Ana Costa Avenue,Santos,Sao Paulo 11060001,Brazil
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1368-9800 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28095942 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 98031
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Author Hu, B.; Emdad, L.; Kegelman, T.P.; Shen, X.-N.; Das, S.K.; Sarkar, D.; Fisher, P.B.
Title (up) Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 Regulates beta-Catenin Signaling to Maintain Glioma Stem-like Stemness and Self-Renewal Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Molecular Cancer Research : MCR Abbreviated Journal Mol Cancer Res
Volume 15 Issue 2 Pages 225-233
Keywords Brain Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/*pathology; Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics/*metabolism; Cell Line, Tumor; Glioblastoma/genetics/metabolism/*pathology; Humans; Neoplastic Stem Cells/*pathology; Signal Transduction; Tumor Cells, Cultured; beta Catenin/genetics/*metabolism
Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme is a common malignant brain tumor that portends extremely poor patient survival. Recent studies reveal that glioma stem-like cells (GSC) are responsible for glioblastoma multiforme escape from chemo-radiotherapy and mediators of tumor relapse. Previous studies suggest that AEG-1 (MTDH), an oncogene upregulated in most types of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme, plays a focal role linking multiple signaling pathways in tumorigenesis. We now report a crucial role of AEG-1 in glioma stem cell biology. Primary glioblastoma multiforme cells were isolated from tumor specimens and cultured as neurospheres. Using the surface marker CD133, negative and positive cells were separated as nonstem and stem populations by cell sorting. Tissue samples and low passage cells were characterized and compared with normal controls. Functional biological assays were performed to measure stemness, self-renewal, differentiation, adhesion, protein-protein interactions, and cell signaling. AEG-1 was upregulated in all glioblastoma multiforme neurospheres compared with normal neural stem cells. Expression of AEG-1 was strongly associated with stem cell markers CD133 and SOX2. AEG-1 facilitated beta-catenin translocation into the nucleus by forming a complex with LEF1 and beta-catenin, subsequently activating Wnt signaling downstream genes. Through an AEG-1/Akt/GSK3beta signaling axis, AEG-1 controlled phosphorylation levels of beta-catenin that stabilized the protein. IMPLICATIONS: This study discovers a previously unrecognized role of AEG-1 in GSC biology and supports the significance of this gene as a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma multiforme. Mol Cancer Res; 15(2); 225-33. (c)2016 AACR.
Address VCU Massey Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1541-7786 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27903708 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 96619
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Author Ross, I.; Mejia, C.; Melendez, J.; Chan, P.A.; Nunn, A.C.; Powderly, W.; Goodenberger, K.; Liu, J.; Mayer, K.H.; Patel, R.R.
Title (up) Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages e0173057
Keywords Adult; Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use; *Attitude of Health Personnel; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Guatemala; HIV Infections/*prevention & control; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Physicians/psychology; Practice Patterns, Physicians'/*statistics & numerical data; Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/*statistics & numerical data; Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract INTRODUCTION: HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700) in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP. We sought to explore current PrEP awareness and prescribing attitudes among Guatemalan physicians in order to inform future PrEP implementation efforts. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult internal medicine physicians at the main teaching hospital in Guatemala City in March 2015. The survey included demographics, medical specialty, years of HIV patient care, PrEP awareness, willingness to prescribe PrEP, previous experience with post-exposure prophylaxis, and concerns about PrEP. The primary outcome was willingness to prescribe PrEP, which was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale for different at-risk population scenarios. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP. RESULTS: Eighty-seven physicians completed the survey; 66% were male, 64% were internal medicine residency trainees, and 10% were infectious disease (ID) specialists. Sixty-nine percent of physicians were PrEP aware, of which 9% had previously prescribed PrEP. Most (87%) of respondents were willing to prescribe PrEP to men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, injection drug users, or HIV-uninfected persons having known HIV-positive sexual partners. Concerns regarding PrEP included development of resistance (92%), risk compensation (90%), and cost (64%). Univariate logistic regression showed that younger age, being a resident trainee, and being a non-ID specialist were significant predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP. In multivariate logistic regression, being a non-ID specialist was a significant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Guatemalan physicians at an urban public hospital were PrEP aware and willing to prescribe, but few have actually done so yet. Future education programs should address the concerns identified, including the low potential for the development of antiretroviral resistance. These findings can aid PrEP implementation efforts in Guatemala.
Address Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28257475 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97185
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ross, I.; Mejia, C.; Melendez, J.; Chan, P.A.; Nunn, A.C.; Powderly, W.; Goodenberger, K.; Liu, J.; Mayer, K.H.; Patel, R.R.
Title (up) Awareness and attitudes of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among physicians in Guatemala: Implications for country-wide implementation Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages e0173057
Keywords Adult; Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use; *Attitude of Health Personnel; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Guatemala; HIV Infections/*prevention & control; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Physicians/psychology; Practice Patterns, Physicians'/*statistics & numerical data; Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/*statistics & numerical data; Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract INTRODUCTION: HIV continues to be a major health concern with approximately 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015. In Central America, Guatemala had the highest incident number of HIV infections (3,700) in 2015. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an efficacious intervention to prevent HIV transmission. PrEP implementation efforts are underway in Guatemala and success will require providers that are knowledgeable and willing to prescribe PrEP. We sought to explore current PrEP awareness and prescribing attitudes among Guatemalan physicians in order to inform future PrEP implementation efforts. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adult internal medicine physicians at the main teaching hospital in Guatemala City in March 2015. The survey included demographics, medical specialty, years of HIV patient care, PrEP awareness, willingness to prescribe PrEP, previous experience with post-exposure prophylaxis, and concerns about PrEP. The primary outcome was willingness to prescribe PrEP, which was assessed using a 5-point Likert scale for different at-risk population scenarios. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP. RESULTS: Eighty-seven physicians completed the survey; 66% were male, 64% were internal medicine residency trainees, and 10% were infectious disease (ID) specialists. Sixty-nine percent of physicians were PrEP aware, of which 9% had previously prescribed PrEP. Most (87%) of respondents were willing to prescribe PrEP to men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers, injection drug users, or HIV-uninfected persons having known HIV-positive sexual partners. Concerns regarding PrEP included development of resistance (92%), risk compensation (90%), and cost (64%). Univariate logistic regression showed that younger age, being a resident trainee, and being a non-ID specialist were significant predictors for willingness to prescribe PrEP. In multivariate logistic regression, being a non-ID specialist was a significant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Guatemalan physicians at an urban public hospital were PrEP aware and willing to prescribe, but few have actually done so yet. Future education programs should address the concerns identified, including the low potential for the development of antiretroviral resistance. These findings can aid PrEP implementation efforts in Guatemala.
Address Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28257475 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97644
Permanent link to this record