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Author Moimaz, S.A.S.; Rocha, N.B.; Garbin, C.A.S.; Rovida, T.A.; Saliba, N.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Factors affecting intention to breastfeed of a group of Brazilian childbearing women Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Women and Birth : Journal of the Australian College of Midwives Abbreviated Journal Women Birth  
  Volume 30 Issue 2 Pages e119-e124  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Brazil; Breast Feeding/*psychology; Female; Humans; Mothers/*psychology; Pregnancy; Retrospective Studies; Socioeconomic Factors; Young Adult; Brazil; Breastfeeding; Breastfeeding difficulties; Breastfeeding initiation; Pregnancy  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Knowing the intention of mothers is important to plan actions to improve exclusive breastfeeding rates. AIM: The objective of this retrospective study was to verify the intention to breastfeed and the intended breastfeeding duration of a group of women participating in a public prenatal dental care program in the city of Aracatuba, Brazil. METHODS: The records of 933 childbearing women were analyzed and their intention to breastfeed and intended breastfeeding duration were associated to women's age, ethnicity, marital status, education, employment, number of gestations, previous breastfeeding experience, previous breastfeeding guidance, presence of complications during pregnancy, and systemic diseases. Data were inserted into Epi Info 2000 and analyzed with Biostat, at a 5% level of significance, and confidence interval of 95%. FINDINGS: Participants mean age was 26.1+/-5.9years. The majority of women (96.5%) declared their intention to breastfeed their babies. The main variables to affect the intention to breastfeed were the number of gestations (p=0.001), previous breastfeeding experience (p=0.03), and previous breastfeeding guidance (p=0.01). Intended breastfeeding duration was significantly affected by women's age (p=0.04), employment (0.02), the number of gestations (p=0.001), and previous breastfeeding experience (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Previous positive breastfeeding experience and guidance during prenatal examinations positively affected women's intention to breastfeed; while older, unemployed women in their second or more gestation and previous breastfeeding experience intended to breastfeed their children for longer periods of time.  
  Address Preventive and Social Dentistry Department, School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Aracatuba, Brazil. Electronic address: nemre@foa.unesp.br  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1871-5192 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27840072 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97339  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Derose, K.P.; Payan, D.D.; Fulcar, M.A.; Terrero, S.; Acevedo, R.; Farias, H.; Palar, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages e0181568  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Domestic Violence; Dominican Republic/epidemiology; Female; *Food Supply; HIV/isolation & purification; HIV Infections/*epidemiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Qualitative Research; Social Stigma; Social Support; Socioeconomic Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. METHODS: We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics. In-person interviews were conducted in Spanish. Transcripts were coded using content analysis methods and an inductive approach to identify principal and emergent themes. RESULTS: Respondents identified economic instability as the primary driver of food insecurity, precipitated by enacted stigma in the labor and social domains. Women described experiences of HIV-related labor discrimination in formal and informal sectors. Women commonly reported illegal HIV testing by employers, and subsequent dismissal if HIV-positive, especially in tourism and free trade zones. Enacted stigma in the social domain manifested as gossip and rejection by family, friends, and neighbors and physical, verbal, and sexual abuse by intimate partners, distancing women from sources of economic and food support. These experiences with discrimination and abuse contributed to internalized stigma among respondents who, as a result, were fearful and hesitant to disclose their HIV status; some participants reported leaving spouses and/or families, resulting in further isolation from economic resources, food and other support. A minority of participants described social support by friends, spouses, families and support groups, which helped to ameliorate food insecurity and emotional distress. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing food insecurity among WLHIV requires policy and programmatic interventions to enforce existing laws designed to protect the rights of people living with HIV, reduce HIV-related stigma, and improve gender equality.  
  Address Division of HIV, ID and Global Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California – San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28742870 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97262  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Derose, K.P.; Payan, D.D.; Fulcar, M.A.; Terrero, S.; Acevedo, R.; Farias, H.; Palar, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages e0181568  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Domestic Violence; Dominican Republic/epidemiology; Female; *Food Supply; HIV/isolation & purification; HIV Infections/*epidemiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Qualitative Research; Social Stigma; Social Support; Socioeconomic Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. METHODS: We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics. In-person interviews were conducted in Spanish. Transcripts were coded using content analysis methods and an inductive approach to identify principal and emergent themes. RESULTS: Respondents identified economic instability as the primary driver of food insecurity, precipitated by enacted stigma in the labor and social domains. Women described experiences of HIV-related labor discrimination in formal and informal sectors. Women commonly reported illegal HIV testing by employers, and subsequent dismissal if HIV-positive, especially in tourism and free trade zones. Enacted stigma in the social domain manifested as gossip and rejection by family, friends, and neighbors and physical, verbal, and sexual abuse by intimate partners, distancing women from sources of economic and food support. These experiences with discrimination and abuse contributed to internalized stigma among respondents who, as a result, were fearful and hesitant to disclose their HIV status; some participants reported leaving spouses and/or families, resulting in further isolation from economic resources, food and other support. A minority of participants described social support by friends, spouses, families and support groups, which helped to ameliorate food insecurity and emotional distress. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing food insecurity among WLHIV requires policy and programmatic interventions to enforce existing laws designed to protect the rights of people living with HIV, reduce HIV-related stigma, and improve gender equality.  
  Address Division of HIV, ID and Global Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California – San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28742870 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 98011  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Herrero, M.; Thornton, P.K.; Power, B.; Bogard, J.R.; Remans, R.; Fritz, S.; Gerber, J.S.; Nelson, G.; See, L.; Waha, K.; Watson, R.A.; West, P.C.; Samberg, L.H.; van de Steeg, J.; Stephenson, E.; van Wijk, M.; Havlik, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Farming and the geography of nutrient production for human use: a transdisciplinary analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Lancet. Planetary Health Abbreviated Journal Lancet Planet Health  
  Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages e33-e42  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Information about the global structure of agriculture and nutrient production and its diversity is essential to improve present understanding of national food production patterns, agricultural livelihoods, and food chains, and their linkages to land use and their associated ecosystems services. Here we provide a plausible breakdown of global agricultural and nutrient production by farm size, and also study the associations between farm size, agricultural diversity, and nutrient production. This analysis is crucial to design interventions that might be appropriately targeted to promote healthy diets and ecosystems in the face of population growth, urbanisation, and climate change. METHODS: We used existing spatially-explicit global datasets to estimate the production levels of 41 major crops, seven livestock, and 14 aquaculture and fish products. From overall production estimates, we estimated the production of vitamin A, vitamin B12, folate, iron, zinc, calcium, calories, and protein. We also estimated the relative contribution of farms of different sizes to the production of different agricultural commodities and associated nutrients, as well as how the diversity of food production based on the number of different products grown per geographic pixel and distribution of products within this pixel (Shannon diversity index [H]) changes with different farm sizes. FINDINGS: Globally, small and medium farms (</=50 ha) produce 51-77% of nearly all commodities and nutrients examined here. However, important regional differences exist. Large farms (>50 ha) dominate production in North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand. In these regions, large farms contribute between 75% and 100% of all cereal, livestock, and fruit production, and the pattern is similar for other commodity groups. By contrast, small farms (</=20 ha) produce more than 75% of most food commodities in sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, south Asia, and China. In Europe, west Asia and north Africa, and central America, medium-size farms (20-50 ha) also contribute substantially to the production of most food commodities. Very small farms (</=2 ha) are important and have local significance in sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, and south Asia, where they contribute to about 30% of most food commodities. The majority of vegetables (81%), roots and tubers (72%), pulses (67%), fruits (66%), fish and livestock products (60%), and cereals (56%) are produced in diverse landscapes (H>1.5). Similarly, the majority of global micronutrients (53-81%) and protein (57%) are also produced in more diverse agricultural landscapes (H>1.5). By contrast, the majority of sugar (73%) and oil crops (57%) are produced in less diverse ones (H</=1.5), which also account for the majority of global calorie production (56%). The diversity of agricultural and nutrient production diminishes as farm size increases. However, areas of the world with higher agricultural diversity produce more nutrients, irrespective of farm size. INTERPRETATION: Our results show that farm size and diversity of agricultural production vary substantially across regions and are key structural determinants of food and nutrient production that need to be considered in plans to meet social, economic, and environmental targets. At the global level, both small and large farms have key roles in food and nutrition security. Efforts to maintain production diversity as farm sizes increase seem to be necessary to maintain the production of diverse nutrients and viable, multifunctional, sustainable landscapes. FUNDING: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, CGIAR Research Programs on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security and on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health funded by the CGIAR Fund Council, Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation, European Union, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Australian Research Council, National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and Joint Programming Initiative on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change-Belmont Forum.  
  Address International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2542-5196 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28670647 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97264  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Herrero, M.; Thornton, P.K.; Power, B.; Bogard, J.R.; Remans, R.; Fritz, S.; Gerber, J.S.; Nelson, G.; See, L.; Waha, K.; Watson, R.A.; West, P.C.; Samberg, L.H.; van de Steeg, J.; Stephenson, E.; van Wijk, M.; Havlik, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Farming and the geography of nutrient production for human use: a transdisciplinary analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Lancet. Planetary Health Abbreviated Journal Lancet Planet Health  
  Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages e33-e42  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Information about the global structure of agriculture and nutrient production and its diversity is essential to improve present understanding of national food production patterns, agricultural livelihoods, and food chains, and their linkages to land use and their associated ecosystems services. Here we provide a plausible breakdown of global agricultural and nutrient production by farm size, and also study the associations between farm size, agricultural diversity, and nutrient production. This analysis is crucial to design interventions that might be appropriately targeted to promote healthy diets and ecosystems in the face of population growth, urbanisation, and climate change. METHODS: We used existing spatially-explicit global datasets to estimate the production levels of 41 major crops, seven livestock, and 14 aquaculture and fish products. From overall production estimates, we estimated the production of vitamin A, vitamin B12, folate, iron, zinc, calcium, calories, and protein. We also estimated the relative contribution of farms of different sizes to the production of different agricultural commodities and associated nutrients, as well as how the diversity of food production based on the number of different products grown per geographic pixel and distribution of products within this pixel (Shannon diversity index [H]) changes with different farm sizes. FINDINGS: Globally, small and medium farms (</=50 ha) produce 51-77% of nearly all commodities and nutrients examined here. However, important regional differences exist. Large farms (>50 ha) dominate production in North America, South America, and Australia and New Zealand. In these regions, large farms contribute between 75% and 100% of all cereal, livestock, and fruit production, and the pattern is similar for other commodity groups. By contrast, small farms (</=20 ha) produce more than 75% of most food commodities in sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, south Asia, and China. In Europe, west Asia and north Africa, and central America, medium-size farms (20-50 ha) also contribute substantially to the production of most food commodities. Very small farms (</=2 ha) are important and have local significance in sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, and south Asia, where they contribute to about 30% of most food commodities. The majority of vegetables (81%), roots and tubers (72%), pulses (67%), fruits (66%), fish and livestock products (60%), and cereals (56%) are produced in diverse landscapes (H>1.5). Similarly, the majority of global micronutrients (53-81%) and protein (57%) are also produced in more diverse agricultural landscapes (H>1.5). By contrast, the majority of sugar (73%) and oil crops (57%) are produced in less diverse ones (H</=1.5), which also account for the majority of global calorie production (56%). The diversity of agricultural and nutrient production diminishes as farm size increases. However, areas of the world with higher agricultural diversity produce more nutrients, irrespective of farm size. INTERPRETATION: Our results show that farm size and diversity of agricultural production vary substantially across regions and are key structural determinants of food and nutrient production that need to be considered in plans to meet social, economic, and environmental targets. At the global level, both small and large farms have key roles in food and nutrition security. Efforts to maintain production diversity as farm sizes increase seem to be necessary to maintain the production of diverse nutrients and viable, multifunctional, sustainable landscapes. FUNDING: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, CGIAR Research Programs on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security and on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health funded by the CGIAR Fund Council, Daniel and Nina Carasso Foundation, European Union, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Australian Research Council, National Science Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and Joint Programming Initiative on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change-Belmont Forum.  
  Address International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2542-5196 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28670647 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 98017  
Permanent link to this record
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