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Author Sacks, E.; Freeman, P.A.; Sakyi, K.; Jennings, M.C.; Rassekh, B.M.; Gupta, S.; Perry, H.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 3. neonatal health findings Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Journal of Global Health Abbreviated Journal J Glob Health  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 010903  
  Keywords  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: As the number of deaths among children younger than 5 years of age continues to decline globally through programs to address the health of older infants, neonatal mortality is becoming an increasingly large proportion of under-5 deaths. Lack of access to safe delivery care, emergency obstetric care and postnatal care continue to be challenges for reducing neonatal mortality. This article reviews the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) and common components of programs aiming to improve health during the first 28 days of life. METHODS: A database comprising evidence of the effectiveness of projects, programs and field research studies (referred to collectively as projects) in improving maternal, neonatal and child health through CBPHC has been assembled and described elsewhere in this series. From this larger database (N = 548), a subset was created from assessments specifically relating to newborn health (N = 93). Assessments were excluded if the primary project beneficiaries were more than 28 days of age, or if the assessment did not identify one of the following outcomes related to neonatal health: changes in knowledge about newborn illness, care seeking for newborn illness, utilization of postnatal care, nutritional status of neonates, neonatal morbidity, or neonatal mortality. Descriptive analyses were conducted based on study type and outcome variables. An equity assessment was also conducted on the articles included in the neonatal subset. RESULTS: There is strong evidence that CBPHC can be effective in improving neonatal health, and we present information about the common characteristics shared by effective programs. For projects that reported on health outcomes, twice as many reported an improvement in neonatal health as did those that reported no effect; only one study demonstrated a negative effect. Of those with the strongest experimental study design, almost three-quarters reported beneficial neonatal health outcomes. Many of the neonatal projects assessed in our database utilized community health workers (CHWs), home visits, and participatory women's groups. Several of the interventions used in these projects focused on health education (recognition of danger signs), and promotion of and support for exclusive breastfeeding (sometimes, but not always, including early breastfeeding). Almost all of the assessments that included a measurable equity component showed that CBPHC produced neonatal health benefits that favored the poorest segment of the project population. However, the studies were quite biased in geographic scope, with more than half conducted in South Asia, and many were pilot studies, rather than projects at scale. CONCLUSIONS: CBPHC can be effectively employed to improve neonatal health in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. CBPHC is especially important for education and support for pregnant and postpartum mothers and for establishing community-facility linkages to facilitate referrals for obstetrical emergencies; however, the latter will only produce better health outcomes if facilities offer timely, high-quality care. Further research on this topic is needed in Africa and Latin America, as well as in urban and peri-urban areas. Additionally, more assessments are needed of integrated packages of neonatal interventions and of programs at scale.  
  Address Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2047-2978 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28685041 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97330  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fernandez Palacios, L.; Barrientos Augustinus, E.; Raudales Urquia, C.; Frontela Saseta, C.; Ros Berruezo, G. url  openurl
  Title Degree of malnutrition and its relationship with major structural and eating factors in Honduran preschool population. Prevalence of breastfeeding Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Nutricion Hospitalaria Abbreviated Journal Nutr Hosp  
  Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 639-646  
  Keywords *Honduras; *Child malnutrition; *Breastfeeding  
  Abstract Introduction: Child malnutrition remains a serious public health problem in Honduras, with a national prevalence according to the World Health Organization (WHO) reference values of 29% in children under fi ve. In addition, the average chronic malnutrition in the region amounts to 80% in poor and indigenous communities, making Honduras the second country in Central America with the highest incidence of chronic malnutrition. Another problem of the region is the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: only 29.7% of children were exclusively breastfed until they were six months. Therefore, the study seeks to understand, identify and quantify the situation determinants and provide information for the design of public policies. Material and method:: The study consisted of a cross-sectional descriptive anthropometric assessment in which the nutritional status and the prevalence of undernourishment, malnutrition and malnutrition in 141 children aged between six months and fi ve years, belonging to urban and rural regions of the country, were analyzed, as well as assessing the prevalence of breastfeeding in fi ve Honduran departments (Intibuca, Lempira, Atlantida, Olancho and Francisco Morazan). Results and conclusion: When making the analysis by departments, differences regarding nutritional status and breastfeeding were observed between urban and rural areas, the latter being doubled in the case of chronic malnutrition and underweight, with percentages of 14.6% in urban areas versus28.8% in rural areas, and 4.6% in urban areas compared to 9% in rural areas, respectively. However, with respect to acute malnutrition and overweight in both regions, similar values were observed, above 1.1% for acute and 14% for overweight malnutrition. In relation to exclusive breastfeeding for six months, the departments of Olancho and Lempira maintained it for two years, with a percentage distribution of 80% and 48%, respectively. It must be noted that 36% of mothers did not provide breastfeeding, with the highest rate (15%) in the department of Francisco Morazan.  
  Address . l.fernandezpalacios@um.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Spanish Summary Language Original Title Grado de malnutricion y su relacion con los principales factores estructurales y alimentarios de la poblacion preescolar hondurena. Prevalencia de la lactancia materna en los mismos  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0212-1611 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28627201 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97331  
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Author Corburn, J.; Sverdlik, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Slum Upgrading and Health Equity Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health  
  Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages  
  Keywords Africa; Asia; Climate Change; Employment; Environmental Health; *Health Equity; Housing; Humans; Latin America; *Poverty Areas; Socioeconomic Factors; Urban Health; Urban Population; climate change adaptation; health equity; health in all policies; housing; participation; slum upgrading; slums; social determinants of health; sustainable development goals  
  Abstract Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.  
  Address Department of City and Regional Planning & School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. sverdlik@berkeley.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28338613 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97332  
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Author Pinsky, I.; Noto, A.R.; Botequio de Moraes, M.C.; Lucas Dos Santos, E.; Sparks, R.; O'Brien, K. url  openurl
  Title Alcohol Industry Sponsorship of University Student Sports Clubs in Brazil Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs Abbreviated Journal J Stud Alcohol Drugs  
  Volume 78 Issue 2 Pages 306-312  
  Keywords Alcohol Drinking/*economics; Brazil; Commerce; Humans; Marketing/*economics; Perception; *Sports; Students; *Universities  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The university sport environment represents an important target for alcohol industry marketing. This study investigated the nature of relationships between the alcohol industry and university student sports clubs (USSCs). METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with board members from 60 active USSCs in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Interviews were transcribed and subjected to content analysis using NVivo10. RESULTS: All invited USSCs participated in the study. Most (n = 53; 88%) reported having signed contracts with the alcohol industry (breweries, in every case) to have their sports events and parties sponsored. The most common sponsorship arrangement involved the supply of discounted beer for sport and student events. T-shirts, beer freezers, and stereo systems were also frequently provided by the alcohol industry to support alcohol-related sports events. In addition, the alcohol industry event promoters helped market the events and products. In return, the USSCs agreed to exclusively sell the sponsors' brand of beer and/or order and sell a quota of beer at their events. Forty-nine interviewees (81%) reported agreements with alcohol companies whereby open bars (free alcohol events) would also be provided. Despite reporting a range of alcohol harms, participants did not perceive there to be a high risk of harm from the alcohol sponsorship arrangements. CONCLUSIONS: Most USSCs in Sao Paulo, Brazil, have formalized contracts with the alcohol industry that promote the marketing, sale, and consumption of alcohol at parties and university games. A critical review of the impacts of these practices and university policies on alcohol industry sponsorship that can take account of the role of such arrangements in student drinking is warranted.  
  Address School of Social Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1937-1888 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28317512 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97333  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Roldos, M.I.; Hopenhayn, C.; Sacoto, F.; Bustamante, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Developing local health policy: Profiling needs and opportunities in the Municipality of Quito, Ecuador Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Journal of Public Health Policy Abbreviated Journal J Public Health Policy  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Quito; local health policy; municipality; policy development; public health  
  Abstract We describe the steps taken and analysis applied in developing a local health policy agenda for the city of Quito, in Ecuador. In 2014, the Health Commissioner's Office of the Municipality of Quito analyzed the city's epidemiological health profiles, social determinants of health, the legal authority of the Municipality, and relevant literature to understand the city's health burden and develop a Ten-Year Health Plan (2015-2025). Results revealed that Quito's population suffered from noncommunicable chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension) and identified the primary risk factors (poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and resulting overweight or obesity). Other common conditions included respiratory diseases, mental health conditions, deaths and injuries from motor vehicles, violence, and physical insecurity. The plan emphasized health promotion and disease prevention with the aim of transforming citizens' health perceptions with their active participation by fostering public and private intersectoral commitment to improve the quality of life of the population .  
  Address Epidemiology Surveillance, Health Commissioner's Office, Municipality of Quito, Ecuador  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0197-5897 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28242874 Approved no  
  Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97335  
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