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Author Corvalan, C.; Garmendia, M.L.; Jones-Smith, J.; Lutter, C.K.; Miranda, J.J.; Pedraza, L.S.; Popkin, B.M.; Ramirez-Zea, M.; Salvo, D.; Stein, A.D.
Title Nutrition status of children in Latin America Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2017 Publication Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity Abbreviated Journal Obes Rev
Volume 18 Suppl 2 Issue Pages 7-18
Keywords Latin America; childhood obesity; children; nutrition and physical activity situation
Abstract The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence-based obesity prevention interventions.
Address Hubert Department of Global Health of the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1467-7881 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28741907 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97160
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Author Firmansyah, I.; Spiller, M.; de Ruijter, F.J.; Carsjens, G.J.; Zeeman, G.
Title Assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus flows in agricultural and urban systems in a small island under limited data availability Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2017 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ
Volume 574 Issue Pages 1521-1532
Keywords Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Small island system; Substance Flow Analysis (SFA); Urban metabolism; Urban-agriculture
Abstract Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two essential macronutrients required in agricultural production. The major share of this production relies on chemical fertilizer that requires energy and relies on limited resources (P). Since these nutrients are lost to the environment, there is a need to shift from this linear urban metabolism to a circular metabolism in which N and P from domestic waste and wastewater are reused in agriculture. A first step to facilitate a transition to more circular urban N and P management is to understand the flows of these resources in a coupled urban-agricultural system. For the first time this paper presents a Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) approach for the assessment of the coupled agricultural and urban systems under limited data availability in a small island. The developed SFA approach is used to identify intervention points that can provide N and P stocks for agricultural production. The island of St. Eustatius, a small island in the Caribbean, was used as a case study. The model developed in this study consists of eight sub-systems: agricultural and natural lands, urban lands, crop production, animal production, market, household consumption, soakage pit and open-dump landfill. A total of 26 flows were identified and quantified for a period of one year (2013). The results showed that the agricultural system is a significant source for N and P loss because of erosion/run-off and leaching. Moreover, urban sanitation systems contribute to deterioration of the island's ecosystem through N and P losses from domestic waste and wastewater by leaching and atmospheric emission. Proposed interventions are the treatment of blackwater and greywater for the recovery of N and P. In conclusion, this study allows for identification of potential N and P losses and proposes mitigation measures to improve nutrient management in a small island context.
Address Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen UR, Bornse Weilanden 9, 6708 WG Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27613673 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97161
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Author Canario Guzman, J.A.; Espinal, R.; Baez, J.; Melgen, R.E.; Rosario, P.A.P.; Mendoza, E.R.
Title Ethical challenges for international collaborative research partnerships in the context of the Zika outbreak in the Dominican Republic: a qualitative case study Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2017 Publication Health Research Policy and Systems Abbreviated Journal Health Res Policy Syst
Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 82
Keywords Capacity-building; Caribbean region; Developing countries; Disease outbreaks; Dominican Republic; Health equity; Health research systems; Research ethics; Research networks; Zika virus
Abstract BACKGROUND: The establishment of international collaborative research partnerships in times of infectious disease outbreaks of international importance has been considered an ethical imperative. Frail health research systems in low- and middle-income countries can be an obstacle to achieve the goal of knowledge generation and the search for health equity before, during and after infectious disease outbreaks. METHODS: A qualitative case study was conducted to identify the challenges and opportunities facing the Dominican Republic with regards to developing international collaborative research partnerships in the context of the Zika outbreak and its ethical implications. Researchers conducted 34 interviews (n = 30 individual; n = 4 group) with 39 participants (n = 23 males; n = 16 females) representing the government, universities, international donor agencies, non-governmental organisations, community-based organisations and medical societies, in two metropolitan cities. RESULTS: Five international collaborative research projects related to the Zika virus were identified. Major ethical challenges were linked to the governance of health research, training of human resources, the institutionalisation of scientific activity, access to research funds and cultural aspects. Capacity-building was not necessarily a component of some partnership agreements. With few exceptions, local researchers were merely participating in data collection and less on defining the problem. Opportunities for collaborative work included the possibility of participation in international research consortiums through calls for proposals. CONCLUSIONS: The Dominican government and research stakeholders can contribute to the international response to the Zika virus through active participation in international collaborative research partnerships; however, public recognition of the need to embrace health research as part of public policy efforts is warranted. A working group led by the government and formed by national and international research stakeholders will be key to identify ways in which the country could respond to the ethical demand of generating new knowledge in times of outbreaks.
Address Centro Nacional de Investigaciones en Salud Materno Infantil Dr. Hugo Mendoza (CENISMI), Centro Los Heroes, Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1478-4505 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28946911 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97182
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Author Chae, S.; Desai, S.; Crowell, M.; Sedgh, G.; Singh, S.
Title Characteristics of women obtaining induced abortions in selected low- and middle-income countries Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2017 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages e0172976
Keywords Abortion, Legal/*economics/psychology/*statistics & numerical data; Adolescent; Adult; Africa; Asia; Caribbean Region; Developing Countries/*economics; Educational Status; Europe; Female; Humans; Latin America; Marital Status/statistics & numerical data; Parity/physiology; Poverty/psychology/*statistics & numerical data; Pregnancy; *Pregnancy, Unplanned
Abstract BACKGROUND: In 2010-2014, approximately 86% of abortions took place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although abortion incidence varies minimally across geographical regions, it varies widely by subregion and within countries by subgroups of women. Differential abortion levels stem from variation in the level of unintended pregnancies and in the likelihood that women with unintended pregnancies obtain abortions. OBJECTIVES: To examine the characteristics of women obtaining induced abortions in LMICs. METHODS: We use data from official statistics, population-based surveys, and abortion patient surveys to examine variation in the percentage distribution of abortions and abortion rates by age at abortion, marital status, parity, wealth, education, and residence. We analyze data from five countries in Africa, 13 in Asia, eight in Europe, and two in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). RESULTS: Women across all sociodemographic subgroups obtain abortions. In most countries, women aged 20-29 obtained the highest proportion of abortions, and while adolescents obtained a substantial fraction of abortions, they do not make up a disproportionate share. Region-specific patterns were observed in the distribution of abortions by parity. In many countries, a higher fraction of abortions occurred among women of high socioeconomic status, as measured by wealth status, educational attainment, and urban residence. Due to limited data on marital status, it is unknown whether married or unmarried women make up a larger share of abortions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to identify subgroups of women with disproportionate levels of abortion, and can inform policies and programs to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancies; and in LMICs that have restrictive abortion laws, these findings can also inform policies to minimize the consequences of unsafe abortion and motivate liberalization of abortion laws. Program planners, policymakers, and advocates can use this information to improve access to safe abortion services, postabortion care, and contraceptive services.
Address Guttmacher Institute, New York, New York, United States of America
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28355285 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97183
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Author Corburn, J.; Sverdlik, A.
Title Slum Upgrading and Health Equity Type Journal Article
Year (up) 2017 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Africa; Asia; Climate Change; Employment; Environmental Health; *Health Equity; Housing; Humans; Latin America; *Poverty Areas; Socioeconomic Factors; Urban Health; Urban Population; climate change adaptation; health equity; health in all policies; housing; participation; slum upgrading; slums; social determinants of health; sustainable development goals
Abstract Informal settlement upgrading is widely recognized for enhancing shelter and promoting economic development, yet its potential to improve health equity is usually overlooked. Almost one in seven people on the planet are expected to reside in urban informal settlements, or slums, by 2030. Slum upgrading is the process of delivering place-based environmental and social improvements to the urban poor, including land tenure, housing, infrastructure, employment, health services and political and social inclusion. The processes and products of slum upgrading can address multiple environmental determinants of health. This paper reviewed urban slum upgrading evaluations from cities across Asia, Africa and Latin America and found that few captured the multiple health benefits of upgrading. With the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on improving well-being for billions of city-dwellers, slum upgrading should be viewed as a key strategy to promote health, equitable development and reduce climate change vulnerabilities. We conclude with suggestions for how slum upgrading might more explicitly capture its health benefits, such as through the use of health impact assessment (HIA) and adopting an urban health in all policies (HiAP) framework. Urban slum upgrading must be more explicitly designed, implemented and evaluated to capture its multiple global environmental health benefits.
Address Department of City and Regional Planning & School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. sverdlik@berkeley.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28338613 Approved no
Call Number ref @ user @ Serial 97184
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